Approval Details

Valid E.O.

Validity

This Executive Order approved the specified parts on on October 17, 1983.
As of Wednesday, August 21st, 2019 this Executive Order has not been overturned or superceeded.

Approved Parts

Models
1983 and older model-year gasoline-powered motor vehicles, excluding the following: General Motors Corporation vehicles withan "odd-firing" V6 231 CID engine; Vehicles powered by a rotary engine; Vehicles equipped with more than one ignition coil; and Vehicles equipped with a closed-loop (computer controlled) carburetion system.

This Executive Order may be listed as:
  • C.A.R.B.E.O. D-137
  • Executive Order 137 / D137
  • ARB # D-137
  • Executive Order No: D-137
  • C.A.R.B. No. D-137
  • Resolution D-137
For Free CARB Executive Order Status verification, email an image of the device Executive Order label as well as the Year/Make/Model and Test Group # of the vehicle to [email protected]

Download: Executive Order D-137 PDF

D-137 Document:



                                                              (Page 1 of 2)

                                  State of California
                                  AIR RESCOURCES BOARD

                             EXECUTIVE ORDER D—137
                  Relat1ng to Exemptions under Section 27156
                              of the Vehicle Code

                               CARTER AUTOMOTIVE DIVISION
                               ACF INDUSTRIES INCORPORATED
                                "ENGINE KNOCK ELIMINATOR®

Pursuant to the authority vested in the Air Resources Board by Section
 27156 of the Vehicle Code; and

 Pursuant to the authority vested in the undersigned by Sections 3%515 and
 39516 of the Health and Safety Code and Executive Order G—45—5;

 IT IS ORDERED AND RESOLVED:       That the installation of the "Engine Knock
 Eliminator" manufactured by Carter Automotive Diviston, ACF Industries
   Incorporated, of 9666 Olive Boulevard, St. Louis, Missouri 63132, has been
   found not to reduce the effectiveness of required motor vehicle po17ut1on
   control devices and, therefore, is exempt from the prohibitions of Section
   27156 of the Vehicle Code for 1983 and older model—year gas011ne—powered
_: motor veh1c]es, excluding the following:

     1.    General Motors Corporation vehicles with an "odd—firing" V6 231
          — _CID engine;   _

     2.     Vehicles powered by a rotary engine;

     3.      Vehicles equipped with more than one ignition coil; and

     4.     YVehicles equipped with a closed—¥00p {computer controlled)
            carburetion system.

 This Executive Order is valid provided that installation instructions for
 this device will not recommend tuning the vehicle to specifications
 different from those submitted by the device manufacturer.

  Changes made to the design or operating conditions of the device, as
_ exempted by the Air Resources Board, that adversely affect the performance
 of a vehicle‘s pollution control system shall invalidate this Executive
 Order.

 Marketing of this device using an identification other than that shown in
 this Executive Order or marketing of this device for an application other
 than those listed in this Executive Order shall be prohibited unless prior
  approval is obtained from the Air Resources Board.         Exemption of a kit
  shall not be construed as an exemption to sell, offer for sale, or
  advertise any component of a kit as an individual device.


CARTER AUTOMOTIVE DIVISION                         EXECUTIVE ORDER D—137
ACF INDUSTRIES INCOPPORATED     _                       (Page 2 of 2)
"ENGINE KNOCK ELIMINATOR"



This Executive Order does not constitute any opinion as to the effect that
the use of this device may have on any warranty either expressed or implied
by the vehicle manufacturer.

THIS EXECUTIVE ORDER DOES NOT CONSTITUTE A CERTIFICATION, ACCREDITATION,
APPROVAL, OR ANY OTHER TYPE OF ENDORSEMENT BY THE AIR RESOURCES BOARD OF
ANY CLAIMS OF THE APPLICANT CONCERNING ANTI—POLLUTION BENEFITS OR ANY
ALLEGED BENEFITS OF THE "ENGINE KNOCK ELIMINATOR".

No claim of any kind, such as "Approved by Air Resources Board" may be made
with respect to the action taken herein in any advertising or other oral or
written communication.

Section 17500 of the Business and Professions Code makes untrue or
misleading advertising unlawful, and Section 17534 makes violation
 punishable as a misdemeanor.

Section'43644 of the HeaTth and Safety Code provides as follows:

     "43644.   (a)   No person shall install, sell, offer for sale, or
     advertise, or, except in an application to the state board for
     certification of a device, represent, any device as a motor vehicle
     pollution control device for use on any used motor vehicle unless that
     device has been certified by the state board.. No person shall sell,
     offer for sale, advertise, or represent any motor vehicle poliution     .
     control device as a certified device which, in fact, is not a certified
     device.   Any violation of this subdivision is a misdemeanor."

 Any apparent violation of the conditions of this Executive Order will be
 submitted to the Attorney General of California for such act1on as he deens
 advisable.


 Executed at E1 Monte, California, th]S day of October,
                                                      1983.


                                          fi//{/
                                         KD. Drachand Chief
                                         Mobifle Source D1V1s1on


                          State of California
                          AIR RESOURCES BOARD




EVALUATION OF CARTER AUTOMOTIVE DIVISION‘S "ENGINE KNOCK ELIMINATOR" FOR
EXEMPTION FROM THE PROHIBITIONS IN VEKHICLE CODE SECTION 27156 IN
ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 2222, TITLE 13, OF THE CALIFORNIA ADMINISTRATIVE
CODE




                            October 17, 1983


                                         Date of Issue:   October 17, 1983




EVALUATION OF CARTER AUTOMOTIVE DIVISION‘S "ENGINE KNOCK ELIMINATOR" FOR
EXEMPTION FROM THE PROHIBITIONS IN VEKHICLE CODE SECTION 27156 IN
ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 2222, TITLE 13, OF THE CALIFORNIA ADMINISTRATIVE
CODE




                                   by
                         Mobile Source Division

                           State of California
                           Air Resources Board
                           9528 Telstar Avenue
                           E1 Monte, CA 91731




{This report has been reviewed by the staff of the California Air
Resources Board and approved for publication. Approval does not signify
that the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Air
Resources Board, nor does mention of trade names or commercial products
constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.)


                                  SUMMARY




      Carter Automotive Division {CAD) of ACF Industries, Incorporated,

has applied for an exemption from the prohibitions in California Vehicle

Code Section 27156.   They have requested that their "Engine Knock

Eliminator" (EKE) device be exempted for 1983 and older model—year

gasoline—powered motor vehicles, excluding the following:

           1.   General Motors Corporation vehicles with an "odd—firing"

                V6 231 CID engine;

           2.    Vehicles powered by a rotary engine; and

           3.    Vehicles equipped with more than an ignition coil.
           4.    Vehicles equipped with closed—loop (computer controlled)

                carburetion systems.

      Based on the following:

           1.   The comparative exhaust emission tests performed and

                submitted by CAD; and

           2.    The staff‘s engingering evaluation of the device

the staff concludes that the EKE will not have an adverse effect on

exhaust emissions from vehicles for which exemption is recommended to be

granted.

      The staff recommends that CAD be granted an exemption for 1983 and
older model—year gasoline—powered motor vehicles, excluding the following:

           1.   General Motors Corporation vehicles with an "odd—firing"

                yY6 231 CID engine;

           2.    Vehicles powered by a rotary engine;


                3.    Vehicles equipped with more than one ignition coifl; and

                4.    Vehicles equipped with closed—loop ({computer controlled)

                     carburetion systems.

          The staff recommends that exemption application for vehicles

     equipped with closed—loop (computer controlled) carburetion systems be

     denied until CAD can demonstrate compliance with the requiréments for the

     exemption for these vehicles.   No evidence has been shown to demonstrate

     that the device will not have an adverse effect on these vehicles,

     knowing that these vehicles‘ ignition systems are controlled by computers.

           The staff also recommends that Executive Order D—137 be issued.
ym




                                            i1


                                   CONTENTS




                                              Page Number



SUMMARY                             |               i
conTEnts                                          i1
1.     INTRODNCTION           |                     1
II.    CONCLUSION                                   1
III.   RECOMMENDATIONS




                                                   N
IV.    DEVICE DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION




                                                   on
V.     EVALUATION




                                                   OA
VI.    DISCUSSION


                                                   m
APPENDICES
                                                   G
       SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMS _
                                                   o



       TEST VEHICLE DESCRIPTIONS
                                                   0




       TEST RESULTS
                                                   w


EVALUATION OF CARTER AUTOMOTIVE DIVISION‘S "ENGINE KNOCK ELIMINATOR" FOR
EXEMPTION FROM THE PROHIBITIONS IN VEKICLE CODE SECTION 27156 IN
ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 2222, TITLE 13, OF THE CALIFORNIA ADMINISTRATIVE
CODE.




1.    INTRODUCTION

      Carter Automotive Division of ACF Industries, Incorporated, 9666

Olive Boulevard, St. Louis, MO      63132, has applied for an exemption from

the prohibitions in California Vehicle Code Section 27156.      The applicant

has requested that their "Engine Knock Eliminator" be exempted for 1983

and older model—year gasoline—powered motor vehicles, excluding the
following:

      1.     General Motors Corporation vehicles with an "odd—firing" V6
             231 CID engine;

      2.     Vehicles powered by a rotary engine; and

      3.     Vehicles equipped with more than one ignition coil.
      4.     Vehicles equipped with closed—loop (computer controlled)

             carburetion systems.

      CAD has submitted data of comparative hot start CVS—72 (1—bag)

emission tests performed at their own test facility.      Their tests were

performed on several 49—state certified vehicles ranging in model—years

and engine sizes.

II.    CONCLUSION

      Based on:     (1) the comparative exhaust emission tests performed and

submitted by CAD, even though they were from 49—state certified vehicles

using the hot start CVS—72 procedures; and      (2) the staff‘s engineering


         evaluation of the device, the staff concludes that the EKE will not have

         an adverse effect on exhaust emissions from vehicles for which exemption

         is recommended to be granted.

         III.   RECOMMENDATIONS
                Based on the above conclusion, the staff recommends that Carter

         Automotive Division be granted an exemption from the prohibitions in

         Vehicle Code Section 27156 for their EKE device for installation on 1983

         and older model—year gasoline—powered motor vehicles, excluding the

         foTToWing:

                1.    General Motors Corporation vehicles with an "odd—firing" V6

                      231 CID engine;

                2.    Vehicles powered by a rotary engine;

                3.    Vehicles equipped with more than one ignition coil; and

                4.    Yehicles equipped with cTosed-]oop (computer controlled)

                      carburetion systems.
a999~.




                The staff also recommends that Executive Order D—137 be issued.

         IV.    DEVICE DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

                The EKE is an add—on device which senses engine detonation and

         electronically retards ignition timing to eliminate detonation.    The

         major components of the EKE are a detonation sensor and an electronic

         control unit.    The components are packaged with installation hardware and

         instructions and sold as a kit.

                The detonation sensor has a 3/8" standard threaded stud designed to

         be bolted directly to any existing vacant 3/8"—16 threaded hole in the

         intake manifold or cylinder head where there is no interference with
                                               DJ


throttle or choke mechanisms.   The sensor senses engine vibration and

generates an electrical signal to the electronic control unit.     The knock

sensor consists of an amplifier and a discriminator.     The amplifier

amplifies the intensity of the vibration for signal generation; whereas,

the discriminator will discrete engine noise/vibration interference from
engine detonation, thus, generating a voltage signal only under engine

detonation conditions.

      The electronic control unit is a transistorized module which

interprets voltage signals from the knock sensor (during detonation) to

retard ignition timing until detonation is eliminated.     Once detonation

is ceased, the ignition timing is slowly returned to OEM specification.

The amount of retard is proportional to the strength and frequency of the

engine knock.   Although the maximum retard is about 15 degrees, the

actual amount of retard is only enough to eliminate engine knock.        CAD

technicians claim that the retard control response (time required to

retard timing by 15 degrees) is 0.5 seconds, and advance control response

{time required to forward ignition timing to OEM specifications, up to 15

degrees) is 3.8 seconds.   Ignition retardation is accomplished through

the control unit by delaying the termination of current to the ignition

coil and, thus, the ignition timing.

      The control unit contains a four—, six—, and eight—cylinder

rotating selector to accommodate all engine sizes.


               Schematic diagrams showing EKE connection to standard breaker point

         or solid state ignition.   General Motors Corporation, Chrysler and Ford

         electronic ignition systems are shown in the Appendices.

         V.    EVALUATION
               CAD submitted data of comparative (without and with the device

         installed on test vehicles) hot start CYVS—72 (T—bag) emission tests.

         Their tests were perfdrmed at their own test faci]ity.using 49—state

         certified vehicles.   A TlTist of the test vehicles and a summary of the

         test results are shown in the Appendices.

         VI.   DISCUSSION

               CAD‘s comparative data shown in the Appendices indicate that their

         EKE device did not have an adverse effect on exhaust emissions from the

         vehicles tested.   The vehicles tested were 49—state certified, rather

         than California—certified as required by the procedures, and contained

         breakerless electronic ignition systems.    Since the principle and theory

         of operation of the ignition systems in 49—state and California—certified

         vehicles are similar, the staff accepted CAD‘s data for the evaluation of

         the device.

               Based on an engineering evaluation of the designed operation of the

         device {retarding ignition timing during detonation only), the staff

         concludes that the EKE will also have no adverse effect on exhaust

         emission from vehicles equipped with breaker point type ignition system.
Cneaie


      No comparative data was submitted by CAD on the effects of the EKE

device on vehicles equipped with closed—loop feedback {computer

controlled) systems.     The staff cannot conclude that the EKE will or will

not alter the designed operation of the vehicle‘s ignition system and

adversely affect exhaust emissions, which is controlled by the computer.

Until such time as CAD submits data to demonstrate that the EKE will not

have an adverse effect on exhaust emissions from vehicles equipped with

feedback systems, the staff recommends that exemption application for

these vehicles be denied.

      The staff is concerned about the effects of the ignition timing

retardation by the EKE device may have on the vehicle‘s catalytic

converter.     The device is designed to retard ignition timing thus

delaying the combustion process, only when detonation occurs.

      Since (1) the device returns the timing to OEM parameters within

2.8 seconds after detonation is suppressed, its operation will not cause

significant increase in exhaust gas temperature which may affect the

efficiency and durabi]ify of the catalytic converter and/or its

substrate; (2) a previously evaluated and exempted add—on turbocharger

kit which included this device did not show any break—down or overheating

of the catalytic converter; and (3) CAD‘s research and development tests

did not show any break—down or overheating of catalytic converter, the

staff is of the opinion that the EKE device will not cause any problems
for the catalytic converter due to some increase in exhaust gas

temperature as a result of retard in timing when the device is

functioning.


APPENDICES


                                                                                   CONNECTION OF THE EKE DEVICE


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                                 DESCRIPTION OF TEST VEKHICLES
|es




                           EVALUATION OF CARTER AUTOMOTIVE DIVISION

                                      "ENGINE KNOCK ELIMINATOR"




                             Veh #1             Veh #2            Veh #3         Veh #4

      Model—Year              1977              1978              1979           1980

      Make                    VoTkswagen        Ford              Pontiac        Ford

      Mode1                   Rabbit            F—100 P—U         Grand Prix     Monarch

      Engine Size             1-4’    ].7‘.     1—6, 300 CID      V8, 305 CID   _I—6, 250 CID

      ECS                            OC                OC                OC             OC

      Ignition System         Bosch             Dura—Spark        H.E.1.         Dura—Spark
                               electronic        electronic                       electronic
                              breakerless       breakerless       breakerless    breakerless



              OC:   Oxidation Catalyst


                                    CAD‘s Emission Test Data

                          Evaluation of CAD‘s "Engine Knock Eliminator"

                                           Hot Start CVS—72



                                                                             Fuel
                                           Exhaust Emissions (g/mi)          Economy
      Vehicle       Test Mode       HC                CO_             NOx     (mpg)
        #1          Baseline       3 .54              5.4             1.6     23.9
                    Device         2 .99              5.7             1.6     23 .8

        #2          Baseli??(])    0.51               3.8             2.0     18.1
                    Device! 1      0.49               3.4             1.9     18.0
        #3          BaselTine(U)   0.57               3.3             3.0     17.9
                    Device         0.47               2.5             2 .8    17.8

        #4          BaseTine(1     0.38               2.5             1.2     17.5
                    Device         0.34               2.0             1. 1    17.3




             (1):        Averaged value of three tests.
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Document Created: 2005-09-01 12:14:41
Document Modified: 2005-09-01 12:14:41

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