Approval Details

Valid E.O.

Validity

This Executive Order approved the specified parts on on September 24, 1992.
As of Saturday, August 24th, 2019 this Executive Order has not been overturned or superceeded.

Approved Parts

Part NumberModelsModificationRemarks
Q45CAOBNOS, Q45CAOANOS, Q45FAOBN1990-1992 Infiniti Q45New PROM for ECU, Power Relay, Supply Solenoid, Nitrous Bottle, Pressure Relief Valve, #42 injector, and mounting hardware.THIS SAME E.O. # HAS ALSO BEEN ASSIGNED TO A JIM WOLF NISSAN TURBOCHARGER KIT FOR 1991 THROUGH 1999 NISSAN AND INFINITI PASSANGER CARS W/ 2.0L ENGINE. ARB STAFF WILL REASSIGN THE TURBO KIT WITH A NEW E.O. #

This Executive Order may be listed as:
  • C.A.R.B.E.O. D-244-2
  • Executive Order 244-2 / D244-2
  • ARB # D-244-2
  • Executive Order No: D-244-2
  • C.A.R.B. No. D-244-2
  • Resolution D-244-2
For Free CARB Executive Order Status verification, email an image of the device Executive Order label as well as the Year/Make/Model and Test Group # of the vehicle to [email protected]

Download: Executive Order D-244-2 PDF

D-244-2 Document:



                                                              (Page 1 of 2)

                                   State of California
                                   AIR RESOURCES BOARD

                                 EXECUTIVE ORDER D—244—2
                      Relating to Exemptions Under Section 27156
                                 of the Vehicle Code

                       .          JIM WOLF RACING
     P.O.P. INFINITI Q45 NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEM, KIT #S Q45ChOBNOS, Q45CAOANOS,
                              Q45FAOBNOS, & Q45FAOANOS

    Pursuant to the authority vested in the Air Resources Board (ARB) by Section
    27156 of the Vehicle Code; and

    Pursuant to the authority vested in the undersigned by Sections 39515 and
    39516 of the Health and Safety Code and Executive Order G~45—5;

    IT IS ORDERED AND RESOLVED:  That the installation of the P.O.P. Infiniti
    Q45 Nitrous Oxide System, kit #s Q45CAOBNOS, Q45CAOANOS, Q4SFAOBNOS, &
    Q45FAOCANOS manufactured by Jim Wolf Racing has been found not to reduce the
   . effectiveness of required motor vehicle pollution control devices and,
    therefore, is exempt from the prohibitions of Section 27156 of the Vehicle
    Code for installation on 1990—1992 Infiniti Q45s powered by the 4.5 liter V—
. @ Bga‘soline engine.                                                     '

    This Executive Order is valid provided that installation instructions for
    the P.O.P. Infiniti Q45 Nitrous Oxide System, kit #s Q45CAOBNOS,
    Q45CAOANOS,   Q45FAOBNOS,   & Q45FAOANOS will not recommend tuning the vehicle
    to specifications different from those submitted by the device manufacturer.

    Changes made to the design or operating conditions of the device, as
    exempted by the ARB, that adversely affect the performance of a vehicle‘s
    pollution control system shallcinvalidate this Executive Order.

    Marketing of this device using an‘identification other than that shown in
    this Executive Order or marketing of this device for an application other
    than those listed in this Executive Order shall be prohibited unless prior
    approval is obtained from the ARB.

    This Executive Order does not constitute any opinion as to the effect the
    use of this device may have on any warranty either expressed or implied by
    the vehicle manufacturer.

    This Executive Order is granted based on results from emissions tests
    conducted in accordance with Cold—Start CVS—75 Federal Test Procedure.
    However, the ARB finds that reasonable grounds exist to believe that use of
    the P.O.P. Infiniti Q45 Nitrous Oxide System, kit #s Q45CAOBNOS,
    Q45CAOANOS, Q45FAOBNOS, & Q4§FAOANOS may adversely affects emissions of
    motor vehicles when operating under conditions outside the parameters of the
    previously prescribed test procedures.  Accordingly, the ARB reserves the
    right to conduct additional emission tests,    in the future,     as such tests are
    developed, that will more adequately measure emissions from all cycle
    phases.  If such test results demonstrate that the P.O.P. Infiniti Q45
    Nitrous Oxide System, kit #s Q45CAOBNOS, Q45CAOANOS, Q4SFAOBNOS, &
    Q45FAOANOS adversely affects emissions during off—cycle. conditions (defined
    as those conditions which are beyond the parameters of the Cold—Start CVS—75
    Federal Test Procedure}, this Executive Order shall be effectively rescinded
    as of the date the test results are validated.       Further,   if such test


     JIM WOLF RACING                               EXECUTIVE ORLER D—244—2
                                                   (Page 2 of 2)



     results or other evidence provides the ARB with reason to suspect that the
     P.O.P.   infiniti Q45 Nitrous Oxide System,    kit #s Q45CAOBNOS,   Q45CAOANOS,
     Q45FAOBNOS, & Q45FAOANOS will affect the durability cf the emission control
     system, Jim Wolf Racing shall be required to submit durability data to show
     that the durability of the vehicle emission control system is not, in fact,
     affected and/or that the add—on or modified part demonstrates adequate
     durability.

     In addition to the foregoing, the ARB reserves the right in the future to
     review this Executive Order and the exemption provided herein to assure that
     the exempted add—on or modified part continues to meet the standards and
     procedures of Title 13, California Code of Regulations, Section 2222, et
     seq.

     THIS EXECUTIVE ORDER DOES NOT CONSTITUTE A CERTIFICATION, ACCREDITATION,
     APPROVAL, OR ANY OTHER TYPE OF ENDORSEMENT BY THE AIR RESOURCES BOARD OF ANY
     CLAIMS OF THE APPLICANT CONCERNING ANTI—POLLUTION BENEFITS OR ANY ALLEGED
     BENEFITS OF JIM WOLF RACING‘S P.O.P. INFINITI Q45 NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEM, KIT
     #s Q45CAOBNOS, Q45CAOANOS, Q45FAOBNOS, & Q45FAOANOS.

     No claim of any kind, such as "Approved by the Air Resources Board" may be .
     made with respect to the action taken herein in any advertising or other
—»   oral or written communication.

     section 17500 of the Business and Professions Code makes untrue or
     misleading advertising unlawful, and Section 17534 makes violation
     punishable as a misdemeanor.

     Section 43644 of the Health and Safety Code provides as follows:

          "43644,   (a)  No person shall install, sell, offer for sale, or
          advertise, or, except in an application to the state board for
          certification of a device, represent, any device as a motor vehicle
          pollution control device for use on any used motor vehicle unless that
          device has been certified by the state board.  No person shall sell,
          offer for sale, advertise, or represent any motor vehicle pollution
          control device as a certified device which, in fact, is not a certified
          device.  Any violation of this subdivision is a misdemeanor."

     Any apparent violation of the conditions of this Executive Order may result
     in its rescission or submission to the Attorney General of California for
     such action as he deems advisable.

     The Bureau of Automotive Repair will be notified by copy of this order.

     Executed at El Monte, California, thisC?J?(      day of September, 1992.




                                             R.    B. Summerfield
                                             Assistant Division Chief
                                             Mobile Source Division


                     State of California
                     AIR RESOURCES BOARD




                 EVALUATION OF JIM WOLF RACING
P.O.P. INFINITI Q45 NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEM FOR EXEMPTION FROM THE
 PROHIBITIONS OF VEHICLE CODE SECTION 27156 IN ACCORDANCE WITH
 SECTION 2222, TITLE 13, OF THE CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS




                        September 1992


                                State of California
                                AIR RESOURCES BOARD




                      EVALUATION OF JIM WOLF RACING
     P.O.P. INFINITI Q45 NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEM FOR EXEMPTION FROM THE
      PROHIBITIONS OF VEHICLE CODE SECTION 27156 IN ACCORDANCE WITH
      SECTION 2222, TITLE 13, OF THE CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS




                                        by
                           Mobile Source Division
                             State of California
                             Air Resources Board
                             9528 Telstar Avenue
                              El Monte, CA 91731




(This report has been reviewed by the staff of the California Air Resources
Board and approved for publication.  Approval does not signify that the
contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Air Resources
Board, nor does the mention of trade names or commercial products constitute
endorsement or recommendation for use.)




                        vowre


                                   SUMMARY




     Jim Wolf Racing has applied for an exemption from the prohibitions of

Vehicle Code Section 27156 for their P.O.P. Q4§5 Nitrous Oxide System (NOS),

kit #s Q45CAOBNOS, Q45CAOANOS, & Q45FAOANOS fér installation on 1990—1992

Infiniti Q4§5s equipped with 4.5L engine.    Jim Wolf Racing has submitted a

completed application and all the required information, as well as exhaust

catalyst temperature data.

     Based on the submitted information and an engineering evaluation, the

staff concludes that the installation of the P.O.P. Q45 NOS,    kit #s

Q45CAOBNOS, Q45CAOANOS,   & Q45FAOANOS Qill not adversely affect exhaust

emissions on the affected vehicles when tested in accordance with the Cold

Start CVS—75 Federal Test Procedure.

     The staff recommends Jim Wolf Racing be granted an exemption as

reéuested and that Executive Order D—244—2 be issued.


                                TABLE OF CONTENTS




                                                     Page Number



SUMMARY

CONTENTS                                                           ii

I.         INTRODUCTION

II.        CONCLUSION

III.       RECOMMENDATION

IV.        P.O.P. Q45 NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

v.         DISCUSSION OF THE P.O.P. Q45 NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEM

           APPENDIX

             Temperature Data




                                        ii


                        EVALUATION OF JIM WOLF RACING
       P.O.P. INFINITI Q45 NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEM FOR EXEMPTION FROM THE
        PROHIBITIONS OF VEHICLE CODE SECTION 27156 IN ACCORDANCE WITH
         SECTION 2222, TITLE 13, OF THE CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS

I.    INTRODUCTION

      Jim Wolf Racing of 537 West Main Street, El Cajon, California 92020,

has applied for an exemption from the prohibitions of Vehicle Code Section

27156 for their P.O.P. Q45 Nitrous Oxide System (NOS), kit #s Q4§5CAOBNOS,

Q45CAOANOS,    & Q45FAOANOS for installation on 1990—1992 Infiniti Q45s

equipped with a 4.5L V—8 gasoline engine.

      Jim Wolf Racing has submitted a completed application and all the

required information, as well as exhaust catalysts temperature data.

II.    CONCLUSTONS

      Based on the submitted information and an engineering evaluation, the

staff concludes that the installation of the P.O.P.    Infiniti Q45 NOS, kit #s

Q45CAOBNOS, Q45CAOANOS,    & Q45FAOANOS willvnot adversely affect exhaust

emissions from vehicles for which the exemption is requested when tested in

accordance with the Cold Start CVS—75 Federal Test Procedure.

III. RECOMMENDATION

      The staff recommends that Jim Wolf Racing be granted an exemption as

requested and that Executive Order D—244—2 be issued.

IV.   P.Q.P.   Q45 NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

      The P.O.P. Q45 NOS is specifically designed for installation on 1990—

1992 Infiniti Q45s that are equipped with a 4.5L V—8 gasoline engine.       The

kit uses the automotive grade chemical nitrous oxide to enhance the

performance of the vehicle at wide open throttle (WOT) only.


     The P.O.P. Infiniti Q45 Nitrous Oxide kit can be separated into three

main components:    electiical,   hardware,   and gas.   The electrical

modifications include the following components:


     PROM:                  The PROM is modified to include an expansion of
                            the fuel table at full throttle operation and the
                            addition of support hardware to detect a full
                            throttle mode.  The expansion of the fuel table is
                            designed to accommodate and differentiate the use
                            of nitrous oxide during full throttle operation.
                            The support hardware buffers the signals that the
                            PROM monitors, allowing no distortion to the input
                            and output signals.  When full throttle is
                            detected, a signal is sent to the power relay.

     Power Relay:           The power relay is an electronic switch which
                            monitors the signals from the arming switch and
                            the PROM.  The power relay will switch on the
                            supply solenoid if the vehicle is at full throttle
                            and the arming switch is on.

     Supply Solenoid:       The supply solenoid is the valve that controls the
                            flow of nitrous.


     The hardware components of the nitrous oxide system can be separated

into two categories, primary and support:


     Primary:               The primary components include the supply bottle,
                            fuel pump, and injector.  The supply bottle weighs
                            19 lbs. and can hold a maximum of 15 lbs. of
                            nitrous okide which translates to a total bottle
                            weighing 34 lbs.  An emergency pressure relief
                            valve, vented away from the passenger compartment,
                            is incorporated with the supply bottle.         A #42
                            flare jet is used on the kits to deliver the
                            nitrous oxide.

     Support:               Support hardware includes reinforced tubing,
                            associated brackets,     and a bottle heater.     The
                            reinforced tubing runs from the supply bottle to
                            the flow solencids and then to the nitrous oxide
                            injector.  Typical brackets included in the kit
                            are those used to support the bottle and flow
                            solencid.  A bottle heater is installed around the
                            supply bottle to maintain a 75 to 85 degrees
                            Fahrenheit when required.

                                        ~2—


       An automotive grade nitrous oxide which is a cryogenic gas consisting

of two nitrogen molecules bonded to one oxygen molecule is used in the

P.O.P. Q45 NOS.    This gas is sold and marketed under the brand name Nytrous

Plus and is produced solely by Puritan Bennett.     It differs from the medical

grade nitrous oxide in that it includes tracé amounts of sulfur dioxide (5

ppm)   to prevent substance abuse.

       Under ambient pressure and temperature conditions, nitrous oxide exists

in a gaseous state.      In automotive applications, nitrous oxide is stored as

a liquid in a DOT approved pressure vessel.     Bottle pressure is kept in the

800—1000 psi range.      As nitrous oxide is removed from the bottle the

remaining supply of nitrous oxide un&e:goes a phase change (liquid

converted to gas) to restore equilibrium in the bottle.

v.     DISCUSSION OF THE P.O.P. Q45 NOS

       An engineering evaluation was conducted on the NOS kit to determine its

ifipact on vehicle emissions and durability.

A.     Emission Impact

       The NOS kit injects liquid nitrous oxide into the engine‘s intake tract

when two conditions are satisfied:     the arming switch is "on" and throttle

is at the WOT position.      Injecting nitrous oxide into the inlet tfact of an

engine produces a decrease in the engine‘s inlet air temperature due to the

latent heat of vaporization caused by the injection of nitrous oxide into

the air inlet track.     Additiénally, nitrous oxide is a stronger oxidizer

than ambient air   (36 percent oxygen by weight as compared to 21 percent

oxygen by weight for ambient air)}).   The combination of nitrous oxide and

fuel results in a mild increase in horsepower and torque when compared to

the stock configuration.


     Effective use of the NOS kit requires wide—open throttle operation.

However, the Cold Start CVS—75 Federal Test Procedure (FTP), which is the

official ARB test procedure for evaluating the emission impact of add—on or

modified parts, does not take into account emissions during wide—open—

throttle conditions.          Testing the NOS kit usihg the CVS—75 FTP procedure

will not show any effect on emissions because the kit will not be

operational during the test cycle.           The Air Resources Board is currently

developing off—cycle testing to address the emission impact of devices such

as the NOS kit which operate only when outside of the CVS—75 FTP drive

cycle.   Until off—cycle procedures are developed, the impact of the NOS kit

on vehicle emissions can not be deterfiined.

     The staff looked into potential chemical reactions which could occur

when liquid nitrous oxide is injected into the inlet mixture.             The staff is

not aware of any studies conducted to date which shows the actual chemical

reaction occurring in the vehicle‘s engine when injected with nitrous oxide.

Studies conducted on stationary sources such as the petrochemical industry

(their processes have waste gases containing high levels of nitrous oxide),

have shown that nitrous oxide decomposes at sufficiently high temperatures

to either nitric oxide (NO) or Nitrogen (NZ) and Oxygen (02).             In the

presence of rich fuel, NO reacts with hydrocarbon fragments to form

intermediate species X—N (HCN + NH3).             Depending on the temperature and

air/fuel conditions, remaininé fuel fragments may be oxidized fully into 002

and H.O
     > and the nitrogen species (NH 3! HCN or NO) may be reduced to

molecular nitrogen or oxidized to NOx.             These chemical reactions are likely

to occur in a vehicle injected with nitrous oxide.            However, without the

proper test‘procedutes, relative amounts of NOx and HC can not be

quantified.      The manufacturer stated use of nitrous oxide is minimal because

                                             —4—




          ersonnurnent ons   omm     emom=    s                  hm   w   —   srranne


of its high cost ($2.50 per pound; a pound of nitrous oxide is approximately

equivalent to 10 seconds of vehicle operation}.

     B. Durability

     The staff also evaluated the NOS kit for its effect on the durability

of the vehicle‘s emission control system, spécifically the potential

degradation of the oxygen sensor and the catalytic converter.

     A literature search was conducted by Nitrous Oxide Systems, Inc.          (NOS,

Inc.),‘the hardware manufacturer of the Jim Wolf Racing P.O.P. Infiniti Q45

NOS, on all Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) papers from 1965 to

present regarding the performance of exhaust gas oxygen sensors.       Based on

the literature search, oxygen sensor failure could either be mechanical or

chemical.    Mechanical failure was attributed to external structural damage

or internal separation of components caused by impact or excessive

vibration.    Chemical failure was attributed to poisoning due to presence of

leéd, phosphorus, zinc, calcium, or silica.       Nytrous Plus ({automotive grade

nitrous oxide) contains no elements known to contribute any exhaust gas

oxygen failure or performance degradation.

     Degradation of the catalytic converter has been known to accelerate

when exposed to sulfur.        The sulfur content of current‘pump gasoline varies

between 30 to 3000 ppm, whereas Nytrous Plus contains only 5 ppm.

Therefore, based on comparative sulfur content, any degradation in the

catalytic converter will be dQe to the sulfur content in the fuel.        To

demonstrate that the effect of sulfur from nitrous oxide injection is

insignificant,   NOS,   Inc.   conducted a mass flow analysis of fuel and nitrous

oxide using a 1990 5.0L Mustangs and a 1991 5.0L Pontiac Firebird.        Using

typical customer usage rates (5 lbs/week), sulfur contributed by nitrous

                                          —5—


oxide injection would be between 1 to 2 percent of the total sulfur consumed

by the vehicle.

        The use of nitrous oxide can result in an increase in exhaust gas

temperature, a factor critical to life expectancy and degradation of the

catalytic converter.     Due to these concerns, 3im Wolf Racing volunteered to

demonstrate that no substantial increase in exhaust temperature would be

observed by conducting comparative exhaust temperature testing.     Testing was

conducted at the Los Angeles County Raceway in Palmdale, California with

representatives from the ARB present to obsgrve the tests.     A 1992 Infiniti

Q45 was used in the tests which consisted of four 0 to 80 miles per hour

(MPH)    stand still to WOT drag strip sgyle runs, two tests to record baseline

temperatures and two tests to measure the modified temperatures.     The test

vehicles were equipped with data loggers to record the catalyst inlet and

bed temperatures.     Since testing was conducted on a drag strip and not under

cofltrolled laboratory conditions, the staff anticipated low repeatability of

data.     Also, the data logger is manually engaged/disengaged which could

attribute to some variability in test data.     Therefore, a temperature

increase of up to 10 percent over the baseline was considered to be

insignificant.     Furthermore, staff deems the 0 to 80 MPH acceleration test

to be the worst case condition, which will rarely occur when the vehicle is

under normal street driving.

        Results of the 0 to 80 MPH runs on the 1992 Infiniti Q45 are shown in

Appendix which demonstrates that no significant increase in catalyst inlet

or exhaust temperatures were observed from the use of the P.O.P. NOS kit.

All catalyst bed temperatures recorded were far below the 1700 degrees F

upper limit recommended by catalyst manufacturers.

        Jim Wolf Racing submitted all the required information and has met the

requirements for an exemption.


APPENDIX


                                                       TABLE
                                        INFINITI ©45 80 MPH TEMPERATURE VALUES

Test                   Configuration                   Inlet            Outlet        Catalyst
                                                         (Degrees Fahrenheit)

   #1                       Baseline                     1410            1390       Driver
                                                                                *   Pre—Cat
   #1                       Baseline                     1275             975       Driver
                                                                                    Main Cat.
  #1                        Baseline                    1475            1325        Passenger
                                                                                    Pre—Cat.
  #1                        Baseline                    1310             1025       Passenger
                                                                                    Main Cat.
  #2                        Baseline                    1410             1400       Driver
                                                                                    Pre—Cat.
  #2                        Baseline                    1275              950       Driver
                                                                                    Main Cat.
  #2                        Baseline                    1495             1325       Passenger
                                                                                    Pre—Cat.
  #2                        Baseline                    1325             1025       Passenger
                                                                                    Main Cat.

ConNitrousoxide__                                       1395             1375       Driver
                                                                                    Pre~Cat
  #3                       Nitrous Oxide                1200 .            910       Driver
                                                                                    Main Cat.
 .#3                       Nitrous Oxide                1475             1250       Passenger
                                                                                    Pre—Cat.
  #3                       Nitrous Oxide                1250              975       Passenger
                                                                                    Main Cat.
  #4                       Nitrous Oxide                1425             1395       Driver
                                                                                    Pre—Cat.
  #4                        Nitrous Oxide               1250              895       Driver
                                                                                    Main Cat.
  #4                       Nitrous Oxide               ‘1510             1310       Passenger
                                                                                    Pre—Cat.
  #4                        Nitrous Oxide               1310              975       Passenger
                                                                                    Main Cat.




                                                        —g~




        rnmisemmetirmmennsenom navn mb it onipnester


 Average Baseline    .   1410         1395           Driver
                                                    Pre—Cat.
                         1485         1325          Passenger
                                                    Pre—Cat.
                         1275          963          Driver
                                                    Main Cat.
                         1318         1025          Passenger
                                                    Main Cat.

Average Nitrous Oxide    1410         1385          Driver
                                                    Pre—Cat.
                         1493         1280          Passenger
                                                    Pre—Cat.
                         1225          903          Driver
                                                    Main Cat.
                         1280          943          Passenger
                                                    Main Cat.

 Difference              +0 or   0%   —10 or 0.7%   Driver
                                                     Pre—Cat.
                         +8 or O.5%   —45 or 3%     Passenger
                                                     Pre—Cat.
                         —50 or 4%    —60 or 6%      Driver
                                                     Main Cat.
                         —100 or 8%   —82 or 8%      Passenger
                                                     Main Cat.



Document Created: 2005-09-01 12:44:15
Document Modified: 2005-09-01 12:44:15

Previous E.O. D-244-1 | Previous E.O. D-243 | Next E.O. D-244-3 | Next E.O. D-245