Approval Details

Valid E.O.

Validity

This Executive Order approved the specified parts on on October 19, 1992.
As of Monday, December 10th, 2018 this Executive Order has not been overturned or superceeded.

Approved Parts

Part NumberModels
5170, 5170-II1985-1992 Camros and Firebirds equiped with a 5.7 L V-8 gasoline engine

This Executive Order may be listed as:
  • C.A.R.B.E.O. D-266-1
  • Executive Order 266-1 / D266-1
  • ARB # D-266-1
  • Executive Order No: D-266-1
  • C.A.R.B. No. D-266-1
  • Resolution D-266-1
For Free CARB Executive Order Status verification, email an image of the device Executive Order label as well as the Year/Make/Model and Test Group # of the vehicle to [email protected]

Download: Executive Order D-266-1 PDF

D-266-1 Document:



                                                              (Page 1 of 2)

                                     State of California
                                    AIR RESOURCES BOARD

                                   EXECUTIVE ORDER D—266—1
        ~   +o   0l>    Relating to Exemptions Under Section 27156
                                   of the Vehicle Code
                                              !               r
                               NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEMS, INC.
                       NITROUS OXIDE. INJECTION KIT #5170 & #5170—II

    Pursuant to the authority vested in the Air Resources Board (ARB} by Section
    27156 of the Vehicle Code; and

    Pursuant to the authority vested ih the undersigned by Sections 39515 and
    39516 of the Health and Safety Code and Executive Order G—45—5;

    IT IS ORDERED AND RESOLVED:  That the installation of the Nitrous Oxide
    Injection Kit #5170 & #5170~II manufactured by Nitrous Oxide Systems, Inc,
    have been found not to reduce the effectiveness of required motor vehicle
    pollution control devices and, therefore, are exempt from the prohibitions
    of Section 27156 of the Vehicle Code for installation on the following
    General Motors‘ vehicles that are Tuned Port Injected:   The 1985 to 1992
    Camaros & Firebirds equipped with a 5.0L V—8 qgasoline engine, 1985 to 1992
    Corvettes equipped with a 5.7L V—8 gasoline engine, and 1987 to 1992 Camaros
    & Firebirds equipped with a 5.7L V+8 gasoline engine.

    This Executive Order is valid provided that installation instructions for
    the Nitrous Oxide Injection Kit #5170 & #5170—II will not recommend tuning
    the vehicle to specifications dlfferent from those submitted by the device
    manufacturer.

    Changes made to the design or operating conditions of the device, as
    exempted by the ARB, that adversely affect the performance of a vehicle‘s
    pollution control system shall invalidate this Executive Order.
                                          +
    Marketing of this device using an identification other than that shown in
    this Executive Order or marketing of this device for an application other
    than those listed in this Executive Order shall be prohibited unless prior
    approval is obtained from the ARB.

    This Executive Order does not constitute any opinion as to the effect the
    use of this dqyxce may, K4xs on any warranty either expressed or implied by
1




    the vehicle manufacturer.           i

    This Executive Order is granted based on results from emissions tests
    conducted in accordance with Cold—Start CVS—75 Federal Test Procedure.
    However, the ARB finds that reasonable grounds exist to believe that use of
    the Nitrous Oxide Injection Kit #5170 & #5170—~I1 may adversely affect
    emissions of motor vehicles when operating under conditions outside the
    parameters of the previously prescribed test procedures.   Accordingly, the
    ARB reserves the right to conduct additional emission tests, in the future,
    as such tests are developed, that will more adequately measure emissions
    from all cycle phases.  If such test results demonstrate that the Nitrous
    Oxide Injection Kit #5170 & #5170—I1 adversely affect emissions during off—
    cycle conditions    (defined as those conditions which are beyond the
    parameters of the Cold—Start CVS—75 Federal Test Procedure), this Executive
    Order shall be effectively rescinded as of the date the test results are
    validated.     Further,   if such test results or other evidence


NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEMS,    INC.                       ‘EXECUTIVE ORDER D—266—1
Nitrous Oxide Injection                  ‘            (Page 2 of 2)
Kit #5170 & #5170—II  _


provides the ARB with reason to suspect that the Nitrous Oxide Injection Kit
#5170 & #5170—II will affect the durability of the erission control system,
Nitrous Oxide Systems,    Inc. shall be required to subrmit durability data to
show that the durability of the vehicle emission control system is not, in
fact, affected and/or that the add—on or modified part demonstrates adequate
durability.                         <                 >

In addition to the foregoing, the ARB reserves the right in the future to
review this Executive Order and the exemption provided herein to assure that
the exempted add—on or modified part continues to meet the standards and
procedures of Title 13, California Code of Regulatiors, Section 2222, et
seq.

THIS EXECUTIVE ORDER DOES NOT CONSTITUTE A CERTIFICATION, ACCREDITATION,
APPROVAL, OR ANY OTHER TYPE OF ENDORSEMENT BY THE AIR RESOURCES BOARD OF ANY
CLAIMS OP THE APPLICANT CONCERNING ANTI—POLLUTION BEKZFITS OR ANY ALLEGED
BENEFITS OF NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEMS, INC.‘S NITROUS OXIDE INJECTION KIT #5170
& #5170—II.

No claim of any kind, such as "Approved by the Air Resources Board" may be
made with respect to the action taken herein in any advertising or other
oral or written communication.      !

Section 17500 of the Business and Professions Code makes untrue or
misleading advertising unlawful, and Section 17534 makes violation
punishable as a misdemeanor.

Section 43644 of the Health and Safety Code provides as follows:

       "43644,   (a)  No person shall install, sell, offer for sale, or
       advertise, or, except in an application to the state board for
       certification of a device, rebresent, any device as a motor vehicle
       pollution control device for use on any used motor vehicle unless that
       device has been certified by the state board.  Ko person shall sell,
       offer for sale,   advertise,   or represent any motcr vehicle pollution
       control device as a certified device which, in fact, is not a certified
       device.  Any violation of this subdivision is q,mis%ggganor."

Any apparent violation of the conditions of this Executive Order may result
in its rescission or submission to the Attorney General of California for
such action as he deems advisable.

The Bureau of Automotive Repair will be notified by copy of this order.

Executed at El Monte, California, this        céf/"df3>‘¢ October, 1992.
                                                                      <


                                                    L7227

                                             R. B. Summerfiel
                                             Assistant Division Chief
                                             Mobile Source Division


                      State of California
                      AIR RESOURCES BOARD




            EVALUATION OF   NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEMS, INC.
NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEM, KIT   #5170 & #5170—II FOR EXEMPTION FROM THE
  PROHIBITIONS OF VEHICLE   CODE SECTION 27156 IN ACCORDANCE WITH
  SECTION 2222, TITLE 13,   OF THE CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS




                            October 1992


                            State of California
                            ALIR RESOURCES BOARD




                 EVALUATION OF   NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEMS, INcC.
     NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEM, KIT   #5170 & #5170—II FOR EXEMPTION FROM THE
       PROHIBITIONS OF VEHICLE   CODE SECTION 27156 IN ACCORDANCE WITH
       SECTION 2222, TITLE 13,   OF THE CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS




                                      by
                          Mobile Source Division
                            State of California
                            Air Resources Board
                            9528 Telstar Avenue
                             El Monte, CA 91731




(This report has been reviewed by the staff of the California Air Resources
Board and approved for publication.  Approval does not signify that the
contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Air Resources
Board, nor does the mention of trade names or commercial products constitute
endorsement or recommendation for use.)


                                   SUMMARY




     Nitrous Oxide Systems,   Inc. has applied for an exemption from the

prohibitions of Vehicle Code Section 27156 for their Nitrous Oxide System

(NOS), kit #5170 & #5170—II for installation ;n the fol¥Yowing General

Motors‘ vehicles that are Tuned Port Injected: 1985 to 1992 Camaros &

Firebirds equipped with a 5.0L V—8 gasoline engine,l1985 to 1992 Corvettes

equipped with a 5.7L V—8 gasoline engine, and 1987 to 1992 Camaros &

Firebirds equipped with a 5.7L V—8 gasoline engine.    Nitrous Oxide Systems,

Inc. has submitted a completed application and all the required information.

Comparative temperature testing, usiné simi;ar NOS hardware, was previously

conducted on a 1992 LT—1 Corvette and a 1990 Mustan§ which demonstrated no

significant increase in catalyst inlet or bed temperatures when compared to

baseline.

     Based on the submitted information and temperature test data on similar

vehicles, the staff concludes that the installation of the Nitrous Oxide

System, kit #5170 & #5170—II will not adversely affect exhaust emissions on

the affected vehicles when tested in accordance with the Cold Start CVS—75

Federal Test Procedure.              *

     The staff recommends Nitrous Oxide Systems, Inc. be granted an

exemption as requested and that Executive Order D—266—1 be issued.


                              TABLE_OF CONTENTS




                                                                      Page Number


suMmMaARY                            :                »                   po    d
contENTs                      f                           c           >        i1
I.          INTRODUCTION                                          '             1
II.         concLuston                   :                                      1
III.        RECOMMENDATION                        .           '                 1.
Iv.         NITRoUS OoXIDE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION                     .             2
v.          DISCUSSION OF THE NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEM                              4




                                             ii


                  EVALUATION OF NITROUS OXIDE SYS&EMS, INC.
      NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEM, KIT #5170 & #5170—II FOR EXEMPTION FROM THE
        PROHIBITIONS OF VEHICLE CODE SECTION 27156 IN ACCORDANCE WITH
         SECTION 2222, TITLE 13, OF THE CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS

I.    INTRODUCTION

      Nitrous Oxide Systems,   Inc.   (NOS,   Inc.) of 5930 Lakeshore Dr.,   Cypress,
                                                              r
California 90630, has applied for an exemption from the prohibitions of

Vehicle Code Section 27156 for their Nitrous Oxide System (NOS), kit #5170 &

#5170—II for installation on the following General‘Motors' vehicles that are

Tuned Port Injected:   1985 to 1992 Camaros & Firebirds equipped with a 5.0L

V—8gasoline engine, 1985 to 1992 Corvettes equipped with a 5.7L v—8

gasoline engine, and 1987 to 1992 Camaros & Firebirds equipped with a 5.7L

V—8 gasoline engine.   NOS, Inc. has submitted a completed application and

all the required information.     Comparative temperature testing, using

similar NOS hardware, was previously conducted on a 1992 LT—1 Corvette and a

1990 Mustang which demonstrated no significant increase in catalyst inlet or

bed temperatures when compared to baseline.

II.    CONCLUSIONS

      Based on the submitted information and temperature test data on similar

vehicles, the staff concludes that,the installation of NOS, kit #5170 &

#5170—II will not adversely affect exhaust emissions from vehicles for which

the exemption is requested when tested in accordance with the Cold Start

CVS—75 Federal Test Procedure.

III. RECOMMENDATION

      The staff recommends that NOS, Inc. be granted an exemption as

requested and that Executive Order D—266—1 be issued.


IV.   NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

      The NOS, kit #5170 & #5170—II is designed for installation on the
following General Motors‘ vehicles that are Tuned Port Injected:    1985 to

1992 Camaros & Firebirds equipped with a 5.0L V—8 gasoline engine, 1985 to

1992 Corvettes equipped with a 5.7L V—8 gasoiine engine;, and 1987 to 1992

Camaros & Firebirds equipped with a 5.7L V—8 gasoline engine.    The kit uses

the automotive grade chemical nitrous oxide to enhahce the performance of

the vehicles at wide open throttle (WOT) only.

      The NOS, kit #5170 & #5170—II can be separated into three main

components:   electrical, hardware, and gas.   The electrical modifications

include the following components:


      PROM:                The original PROM configuratiofl has been altered
                           to allow an increase of fuel only at those
                           parameters when the NOS is operational.

      Dual PROM Holder:    The intent of the dual PROM holder is to allow the
                           vehicle the ability to use an additional PROM in
                           support of the NOS hardware.  The holder
                           automatically switches target PROMs through the
                           use of a control line which is controlled by the
                           NOS kit.  This allows the ECU to automatically
                           receive new calibration data without affecting the
                           performance of the vehicle during the transition
                           period. ,

      wOT Module:          The WOT relay module is designed to detect a full
                           throttle mode.  This is achieved by the use of the
                           OEM throttle position sensor (TPS) switch and its
                           0 to 5 volt output that is directly related to
                           throttle position.  At a 0 voltage the throttle
                           plate is at 0 degrees (closed), and at a 4.8 to
                           5.0 volt reading the throttle plate is at 90
                           degrees (WOT}). The WOT relay module is designed
                           to monitor the signals out of the OEM TPS.   When
                           the relay module detects an output voltage in the
                           range of 4.8 to 5.0,   a signal is sent to the power
                           relay to activate the flow solencids.  The WOT
                           relay module is designed to buffer the signals
                           that it monitors, allowing no distortion from the
                           TPS to the electronic control unit.

      Supply Solenoid:     The supply solenoid is the valve that controls the
                           flow of nitrous.
                                     —2—


         Power Relay:            The power relay is an electronic switch which


©
                                 monitors the signals from the arming switch, WOT
                                 relay, and the dual PROM holder.  The power relay
                                 will switch on the supply solenoid if the vehicle
                                 is at full throttle and the arming switch is on.


         The hardware components of the nitrous oxide system can be separated
                                                                 r
    into two categories, primary and support:


         Primary:                The primary components include the supply bottle
                                 and injector.  The supply bottle weighs 19 lbs.
                                 and can hold a maximum of 15 lbs. of nitrous oxide
                                 which translates to a total bottle weighing 34
                                 lbs.  A #42 flare jet is used on the 5170 kit & a
                                 #67 flare jet is used on the #5170—II kit.       Flare
                                 jets are designed to deliver the nitrous oxide
                                 into the intake track.

         Support:                Support hardware includes reinforced tubing,
                                 associated brackets, emergency pressure relief       _
                                 valve,   and a bottle heater.   The reinforced tubing
                                 runs from the supply bottle to the flow solencids
                                 and then to the nitrous oxide injector.   Typical
                                 brackets included in the kit are those used to
                                 support the bottle and flow solenoid.   A bottle
                                 heater is installed around the supply bottle to
                                 maintain a 75 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit when
                                 required.  ‘An emergency pressure relief valve,
                                 vented away from the passenger compartment, is
                                 incorporated with the supply bottle.

         An automotive grade nitrous oxide which is a cryogenic gas consisting

    of two nitrogen molecules bonded to one oxygen molecule is used in the

    Nitrous Oxide System.     This gas is sold and marketed under the brand name

    Nytrous Plus and is produced solely by Pufitan Bennett.          It differs from the

    medical grade nitrous oxide in that it includes trace amounts of sulfur

    dioxide (5 ppm) to prevent substance abuse.

         Under ambient pressure and temperature conditions, nitrous oxide exists

    in a gaseous state.     In automotive applications, nitrous oxide is stored as

    a liquid in a DOT approved pressure vessel.      Bottle pressure is kept in the


800~1000 psi range.    As nitrous oxide is removed from the bottle the

remaining supply of nitrous oxide undergoes a phase change (liquid

converting to gas) to restore equilibrium in the bottle.

     NOS, Inc. requires that no changes be made in either the ignition

timing or spark plug‘s gap; however, 92+ ocgane fuel ig

required.   They also provide a warning to consumers to not use this product

in conjunction with any aftermarket PROM chip due to the potential effects

on performance and vehicle durability.

V.   DISCUSSION OF THE NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEM

      An engineering evaluation was conducted on the NOS kit to determine its

impact on vehicle emissions and durafiility.

A.   Emission Impact

      The NOS kit injects liquid nitrous oxide into the engine‘s intake tract

when two conditions are satisfied:     the arming switch is "on" and the

véhicle is at WOT.     Injecting nitrous oxide into the inlet tract of an

engine produces a decrease in the engine‘s inlet air temperature due to the

latent heat of vaporization caused by the injection of nitrous oxide into

the air inlet track.    Additionally, nitrous oxide is a stronger oxidizer

than ambient air (36 percent oxygen by weight as compared to 21 percent

oxygen by weight for ambient air}).    The combination of nitrous oxide and

fuel result in a substantial increases in horsepower and torque when

compared to the stock configuration.

      Effective use of the NOS kit rgquires wide—open—throttle operation.

However, the Cold Start CVS~75 Federal Test Procedure (FTP), which is the

official ARB test procedure for evaluating the emission impact of add—on or

modified parts, does not take into account emissions during WOT conditions.

                                       —4—


Testing the NOS kit using the CVS—75 PTP proceddre will not show any effect

on emissions because the kit will not be operational during the test cycle.

The ARB is currently developing off—cycle testing to address the emission

impact of devices such as the NOS kit which operate only when outside of the

CVS—~75 FTP drive cycle.    Until off—cycle pro;edures arg‘developed, the

impact of the NOS kit on vehicle emissions could not be determined.

        The staff looked into potential chemical reaciions which could occur

when liquid nitrous oxide is injected into the inlet mixture.                The

manufacturer provided the following chemical reaction for nifirous oxide and

iso—oc;ane fuel during combustion.

                    CBHlB   +   25N20   =8'CO2      +   9H20   +    25N2

This chemical equation represents complete combustion, which seldom happens

under actual driving conditions.        The staff is not aware of any studies

conducted to date which shows the actual. chemical reaction occurring in the

véhicle's engine when injected with nitrous oxide.                 Studies conducted on

stationary sources such as the petrochemical industry (their processes have

waste gases containing high levels of nitrous oxide), have shown that

nitrous oxide decomposes at sufficiently high temperatures to either nitric

oxide (NO) or Nitrogen (Nz) and Oxygen (02).             In the presence of rich fuel,

NO reacts with hydrocarbon fragments to form intermediate species X—N (HCN +

NH3).     Depending on the temperature and air/fuel conditions, remaining fuel

fragments may be oxidized fuily into CO,            and H,O and the nitrogen species
                                                2        2
(NHB’ HCN or NO) may be reduced to molecular nitrogen or oxidized to NOx.

These chemical reactions are likely to occur in a vehicle injected with

nitrous oxide.     However, without the proper test procedures, relative

amounts of NOx and HC could not be quantified.               The manufacturer stated use

                                          —5—


of nitrous oxide is minimal because of its high cost ($2.50 per pound; a

pound of nitrous oxide is approximately equivalent to 10 seconds of vehicle

operation).

     B. Durability

     The staff also evaluated the NOS kit fog its effect on the durability

of the vehicle‘s emission control system, specifically the potential

degradation of the oxygen sensor and the catalytic converter.

     NOS, Inc. conducted a literature search on all Society of Automotive

Engineers (SAE) papers from 1965 to present_regarding the performance of

exhaust gas oxygen sensors.     Based on the literature search,   oxygen sensor

failure could either be mechanical or‘chemical.     Mechanical failure was

attributed to external structural damage or internal separation of

components caused by impact or excessive vibration.     Chemical failure, was

attributed to poisoning due to presence of lead, phosphorus, zinc, calcium,

or silica.     Nytrous Plus (automotive grade nitrous oxide) contains no

elements known to contribute any exhaust gas oxygen failure or performance

degradation.

     Degradation of the catalytic converter has been known to accelerate

when exposed to sulfur.    The sulfur content of current pump gasoline varies

between 30 to 3000 ppm, whereas Nytrous Plus contains only 5 ppm.

Therefore, based on comparative sulfur content, any degradation in the

catalytic converter will be dfie to the sulfur content in the fuel.      To

demonstrate that the effect of sulfur from nitrous oxide injection is

insignificant, NOS, Inc. conducted a mass flow analysis of fuel and nitrous

                                       ~6—


oxide using a 1990 5.0L Mustangs and a 1991 5.0L Pontiac Firebird.      Using

typical customer usage‘rates (5 lbs/week), sulfur contributed by nitrous

oxide injection would be between 1 to 2 percent of the total sulfur consumed

by the vehicle.

     The use of nitrous oxide can result in ;n increase‘ in exhaust gas

temperature, a factor critical to life expectancy and degradation of the

catalytic converter.    Due to these concerns, NOS,    Ihc. has previously

demonstrated that no substantial increase in exhaust temperature would be

observed by conducting comparative exhaust temperature testing.       Testing was

conducted at the Los Angeles County Raceway in Palmdale, California with

representatives from the Air Resourcés Board present to observe the tests.

A 1992 Corvette and 1990 Mustang were used in the tests which consisted of

four 0 to 80 miles per hour stand still to WOT drag strip style runs, two

tests to record baseline temperatures and two tesfis to measure the modified

témperatures.     The test vehicles were equipped with data loggers to record

the catalyst inlet and bed temperatures.       Since testing was conducted on a

drag strip and not under controlled laboratory conditions, the staff

anticipated low repeatability of data.       Also, the data logger is manually

engaged/disengaged which could attfibute to some variability in test data.

Therefore,   a temperature increase of up to 10 percent over the baseline was

considered to be insignificant.    Furthetmére,    staff deems the 0 to 80 MPH

acceleration test to be the worst case condition, which will rarely occur

when the vehicle is under normal street driving.

     Results of the 0 to 80 MPH runs on the 1992 Corvette and the 1990

Mustang demonstrated no significant increase in catalyst inlet or bed

temperatures under nitrous operation.       All catalyst bed temperatures

                                      —7—


recorded were far below the 1700 degrees F upper.limit recommended by

catalyst manufacturers.     Staff determined the Corvette {non LT—1}, Camaro,

and Firebird would also record similar temperatures as the tested vehicles

due to similarities in exhaust hardware and engine displacement.      Thus, no

significant increase in catalyst inlet or be& temperatures would occur from

the use of NOS on the Corvette, Camaro, and Firebird vehicles.

     NOS,   Inc.   submitted all the required informatibn and has met the

requirements for an exemption.



Document Created: 2005-09-01 12:44:42
Document Modified: 2005-09-01 12:44:42

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