Approval Details

Valid E.O.

Validity

This Executive Order approved the specified parts on on November 29, 1976.
As of Monday, December 10th, 2018 this Executive Order has not been overturned or superceeded.

Approved Parts

Models
1977 and older vehicles EXCEPT with 1) Chrysler's Electronic Lean Burn System 2) Volvo's Three-Way Catalyst 3) Bosch Jetronic Fuel Injection Systems.

This Executive Order may be listed as:
  • C.A.R.B.E.O. D-9-4
  • Executive Order 9-4 / D9-4
  • ARB # D-9-4
  • Executive Order No: D-9-4
  • C.A.R.B. No. D-9-4
  • Resolution D-9-4
For Free CARB Executive Order Status verification, email an image of the device Executive Order label as well as the Year/Make/Model and Test Group # of the vehicle to [email protected]

Download: Executive Order D-9-4 PDF

D-9-4 Document:



                            State of Californmia                       ~o( udeys
                            AIR RESOURCES BOARD                              [Foce
                          EXECUTIVE ORDER D—9—4
             Relating to Exemptions under Section 27156
                            of the Vehicle Code


                          BALL—MATIC CORPDRATION
                         "BALL—MATIC AIR INJECTOR"

Pursuant to the authority vested in the Air Resources Board by Section
27156 of the Vehicle Code; and

Pursuant to the authority vested in the undersigned by Section 39515 of
the Health and Safety Code and Executive Order G—30A;

IT IS ORDERED AND RESQLVED: That the installation of the "Ball—Matic
Air Injector" manufactured by Ball—Matic Corporation of 1429 Palo Loma,
Orange, California 926658 has been found to not reduce the effectiveness of
required motor vehicle poliution control devices and, therefore,; is
exempt from the prohibitions of Section 27156 of the Vehicle Code for
1977 and older vehicles except for those vehicles equipped with:

            (1)   Chrysler‘s Electronic Lean Burn System
            (2)   Yoivo‘s Three—Way Catalyst
            (3)   Bosch Jetronic Fuel Injection Systems

The device consists of an air modulating valve with a filter and is
inserted between the PCY vailve and the intake manifold. This valve
permits a small amount of additional air to snter the PCY line. This
device can be identified by the name "Ball—Matic Air Injector" per—
manently stamped at the bottom of the device housing.

This Executive Order is valid provided that installation instructions
for this device wili not recommend tuning the vehicle to specifications
different from those listed by the vehicle manufacturer.

Changes made to the design or operating conditions of the device, as
exempted by the Air Resources Board, that adversely affect the per—
formance of a vehicle‘s pollution contral system snal] invalidate
this Executive Order.

Marketing of this device using an fdentificatfon other than that shown
in this Executive Order or marketing of this device for an application
other than those lTisted in this Executive Order shall be prohibited unless
prior approval is obtained from the Afr Resources Board.

This Execitive Order does not constitute any opinion as to the effect
that the use of this device may have on any warranty either expressed or
implied by the vehicle manufacturer.

THIS EXECUTIVE ORDER DOES NOT CONSTITITE A CERTIFICATIQN, ACCREDITATION,
APPROVAL, OR ANY QTHER TYPE OF ENRDORSEMENT BY THE AIR RESOURCES BOARD OFf
ANY CLAIMS OF THE APPLICANT CONCERNING ANMTI—POLLUTION BENEFITS OR ANY
ALLEGED BENEFITS OF THE "BALL—MATIC" PEVICE.


No claim of any kind, such as "Approved by Air Resources Board" may be made
with respect to the action taken herein in any advertising or other oral
or written communication.

Section 17500 of the Business and Professions Code makes untrue or mis—
leading advertising unlawful, and Section 17534 makes violation punishable
as a misdemeanor.

Section 43644 of the Health and Safety Code provides as follows:

     "43644.   (a) No person shall install, sell, offer for sale, or adver—
     tise, or, except in an application to the state board for certification
     of a device, represent, any device as a motor vehicle poliution control
     device for use on any used motor vehicle unless that device has been
     certified by the state board.    No person shall sell, offer for sale,
     advertise, or represent any motor vehicle pollution control device as
     a certified device which, in fact, is not a certified device.    Any
     violation of this subdivision is a misdemeanor."

Any apparent violation of the conditions of this Executive Order will be
sgbmltg?d to the Attorney General of Califormia for such action as he deems
advisable.


Executed at Sacramento, California, this ;;Zf L day of November, 1976.


                                     Original Signed By
                                     Thomas C. Austin
                                     Deputy Executive Officer—Technical


                       State of California

                       AIR RESOURCES BOARD

                        November 5, 1976

          Evaluation of the Ball—Matic Corporation
            "Ball—Matic Air Injector" Device for
               Compliance with the Requirements of
        Section 27156 of the California Vehicle Code


Introduction

The Ball—Matic Corporation of 1429 Palo Loma, Orange, California

92668 has submitted an application requesting an extension to a

previously granted exemption from the prohibitions of Section 27156

of the California Vehicle Code for the "Ball—Matic Air Injector".

This application is for 1977 and older model—year vehicle usage.


The Air Resources Board staff had previously evaluated this device

(Staff Report dated November 18, 1975), and found that the device

had no adverse effects on the vehicle emission control system.

Executive Order D—9—3 was issued on November 4, 1975 to Ball—Matic

Corporation for its "Ball—Matic Air Injector" for 1976 and older

model—year vehicles.    The applicant has requested that this exemp—

tion be extended to include the 1977 vehicles (Exhibit A).


Evaluation of the Ball—Matic Corporation "Ball—
Matic Air Injector" Device for Compliance with
the Requirements of Section 27156 of the
California Vehicle Code                                        November 5, 1976




    System Description and Function

    The "Bali—Matic" device consists of a filter, plastic ball, spring,

    and a metal housing with ports used to insert the device between

    the PCV vailve and carburetor.     Exhibit B is a copy of the installa—

     tion instructions.   The name "Ball—Matic Air Injector" is printed

    on a durable label pasted to the bottom of the device housing.


    The device has a modulating poppet which meters the quantity of air

     bleed into the engine.   Engine manifold vacuum determines the

     degree of poppet opening.   Maximum air flow occurs at low vécuum

     (high speed and wide open throttle) and minimum flow occurs at high

    vacuum (idle and deceleration)}.     When the engine is not operating,

     the poppet is in the open position.

III. System Evaluation

    A.    Effects on the Vehicle Exhaust Emission Control Systems

         The Applicant stated that there was no change in the "Ball—

         Matic" device or its application.     The ARB ran a bench flow

          test on the new device submitted {Fig. 1) and confirmed that

         the device flow characteristics were identical to the previously

         evaluated device.


Evaluation of the Balt—Matic Corporation "Ball—
Matic Air Injector" Device for Compliance with
the Requirements of Section 27156 of the
California Vehicle Code                                      November 5, 1976



          The ARB Laboratory had previously conducted a bench flow test

          on tflé device and back—to—back CVS—II emission tests on a

          fleet of 1975 vehicles.   The vehicles chosen all had small

          engines since these vehicles are most susceptible to the "air

          bleed" type of add—on device.    The results of the above tests

          indicated the amount of air bleed allowed by the device was

          insignificant and consequently no adverse effect on exhaust

          emissions was detected in the above emission tests.


          The 1977 vehicle emission control systems are basically the

          same as the 1975 systems except for some vehicles which are

          equipped with mechanisms that make the engine extremely

          sensitive to air fuel mixture variations.    These new systems

          include the Chrysler‘s Electronic Lean Burn System (ELB),

          Volvo‘s Three—Way Catalyst, and Bosch Jetronic Fuel Injection

          Systems.   It is our judgement that the installation of the

          "Ball—Matic‘" device on the vehicles equipped with the above

         new exhaust emission control systems could adverse]y affect

         the engine performance and operation.


Evaluation of the Ball—Matic Corporation "Ball—
Matic Air Injector" Device for Compliance with
the Requirements of Section 27156 of the
California Vehicle Code                                        November 5, 1976




     B.   Manufacturer‘s Claims

          Exhibit C is a copy of the manufacturer‘s advertised claims on

          the device.     The claims include "Gas saving up to 20%", "New

          found power, effortless cruising", "A cleaner more efficiently

          running engine with less carbon build—up".


          The staff believes the installation of the device will not

          provide the benefits claimed.     On a typical small size engine

          the amount of air bleed allowed by the device is less than 1%

          of the air flow at all operating conditions.     These air bleed rates

          will not significantly effect the air fuel ratio or manifold

          vacuum.     In addition previous emission tests by the ARB Laboratory

          did not show significant improvement in the fuel economy of the

          vehicles tested when the "Ball—Matic‘ device was installed.


          The applicant could not substantiate the above claims except

          for testimonial letters which were not supported with engineering

          data.     The applicant was notified by letter dated November 4,

          1976 of ARB findings regarding the advertised benefits of the

          device.    This letter also requested him to delete the afore—

          mentioned claims from the advertisement of the "Ball—Matic‘" device.


Evaluation of the Ball—Matic Corporation "Ball—
Matic Air Injector" Device for Compliance with
the Requirements of Section 27156 of the
California Vehicle Code                                         November 5, 1976



IV.   Conclusion and Recommendation

      Evaluation of the "Ball—Matic" device showed that the installa—

      tion of the device on most 1977 vehicles will not adversely affect

      the exhaust emission control system.


      Therefore the staff recommends that the Ball—Matic Corporation be granted

      an exemption from the prohibition of MVC Section 27156 for 1977 and

      older vehicles except for those vehicles equipped with:

           (1)   Chrysler‘s Electronic Lean Burn System

           (2)   Volvo‘s Three—Way Catalyst

           (3)   Bosch Jetronic Fuel Injection Systems


         2.0



         1.5


 &
 2       1.0
  1
                       /,fIncreasing Vacuum
  &
  0
 t
                            Decreasing Vacuum
 &
 <       ols      1
                  I
                   i

                  Pbog
           0       L. \
                   |                   +—c4~to—      *             ~g—pe
                  2     4       6      8        10       12   14    16     18   20   22   24

                                           Vacuum in Inches~"of Hg.




Fig. 1     Bench Flow Curve of Balmatic Device


                                                    BExhibli¢        #A




                                               ORANGE, CALIFORNIA 9260@
corme—omaTien

                                                            (714) der=i780

                   1429 PALO LOMA                                907476
                                                                 bBG~§723


AIB RESOURCES BOARD
9528 TELESTAR AVE.                     SEPT. 7, 1976
EL MONIE, CALIP. 91731
ATTN: C. HASS

DEAR SIR:
   PLEASE REVIEW OUR POSSIBILITES FOR AN EXTENZION
OF YOUR EXECUTIVE ORDER D—9—3 (1976) and older vechiles
OUR AIR BLEED VALVE(BALL—MATIC) IS STILL THE SAME IN
EVERY RESPECT WITH NO CHANGES. WE ARE ABSTAINING FROM
INSTALLATION OF THE VALNVE ON 1977 VECHILES UNYIL WE
HEAR FROM YOU .                               —
   THANK YOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION IN THE PAST.




                    YOURS VERY TRULY

                    LONNIE w. SMI’I‘W
                  pamnvim
                    PRESIDENT


                                                                                       EXKIBIT C
 CONSERVE FUEL


* HIGH PERFORMANCE
                             FUEL SAVER
                     Ball—Matic Air Injector
We have in our files hundreds of letters                 GAS SsAvVINGS UP TO 20%
from satisfied customers stating that
the Ball—Matic Valve has increased their
mileage up to 20% and in many cases
even more. These letters are available to
anyone who cares to see them.           Many
 letters from our customers claim better
performance, less maintenance, as well as
better mileage.

Why is the Ball—Matic Needed on Your
Car?    Carburetors are notoriously inef—
&nt. Most carburetors are set at a 15
     ratio of air to fuel. This is efficient
up to about 35 M.P.H. At higher speeds,
the combustion chamber demands more
fuel. But the amount of air entering the
chamber is fixed causing too rich a mix—
                                                                      Legal to install on all cars in the State of
ture. The mixture does not burn com—
                                                                      California 1976 and older.
pletely, resulting in gasoline waste and
loss of power.      The Ball—Matic was                                How do you install the Bail—Matic on
designed to improve the mixture of air                                Your Car? Complete instructions come
and fuel at all speeds.      Results:    Gas
                                                                      with the unit for all major automobile
Savings And More Power For You!                                       manufacturers, excluding Volkswagens.

Doesit Work on Ail American Cars? Yes,                               What Have You Got to Gain? Amazing
and anyone can install it on most cars in                            Gas Savings, Up to 20%!       New found
a few minutes. 1t works on your camper,
                                                                     power, effortless cruising, even up steep
truck or boat engine! For Foreign cars
                                                                     hills or when hauling trailers, campers,
see instruction sheets.
                                                                     etc. A cleaner, more efficiently running
                                                                     engine with less carbon build—up.

                                                                     Guarantee. The Ball—Matic is guaranteed
                                 ||||                                to be free from defects in workmanship
                           L.
                            ll BALL—MATIC                            and materials.    Your authorized dealer
                                  Ill‘                                will replace or refund full purchase price
                                               CORPORATION
                                                                      on any unit that is inoperative under
                                               Pat. No. 3809035 .   — normal use for a period of up to one year
                                               (Issued   5/7/74)      from date of purchase.

        1429 PALO LOMA PLACE, ORANGE, CALIFORNIA 92669              TELEPHONE: (714) 633—8723


                                                    (Page 1 of 2)




                          State of California
                          AIR RESOURCES BOARD

                         — EXECUTIVE ORDER D—9—5
              Relating to Exemptions under Section 27156
                          of the Vehicle Code


                         BALL—MATIC CORPORATION
                        "BALL—MATIC AIR INJECTOR"


Pursuant to the authority vested in the Air Resources Board by Section
27156 of the Vehicle Code; and

Pursuant to the authority vested in the undersigned by Section 39515 of
the Health and Safety Code and Executive Order G—30A;

IT IS ORDERED AND RESOLVED: That the installation of the "Ball—Matic Air
Injector" manufactured by Ball—Matic Corporation of 1429 Palo Loma,
Orange, CA 92669, has been found to not reduce the effectiveness of
required motor vehicle poliution control devices and, therefore, is exempt
from the prohibitions of Section 27156 of the Vehicle Code for 1978 and
older vehicles except for those vehicles equipped with:

               {1)   Chrysler‘s Electronic Lean Burn System
               (2)   Volvo‘s Three—Way Catalyst
              .(3)   K and L Bosch Jetronic Fuel Injection Systems
               (4)   Variable Venturi Carburetor Systems

The device consists of an air modulating valve with a filter and is
inserted between the PCV valve and the intake manifold. This valve
permits a small amount of additional air to enter the PCV line.      This
device can be identified by the name "Ball—Matic Air Injector" permanently
stamped at the bottom of the device housing.

This Executive Order is valid provided that installation instructions
for this device will not recommend tuning the vehicle to specifications
different from those listed by the vehicle manufacturer.

Changes made to the design or operating conditions of the device, as
exempted by the Air Resources Board, that adversely affect the per—
formance of a vehicle‘s pollution control system shall invalidate
this Executive Order.

Marketing of this device using an identification other than that shown
in this Executive Order or marketing of this device for an application
cther than those lTisted in this Executive Order shall be prohibited unless
prior approval is obtained from the Air Resources Board.

This Executive Order does not constitute any opinion as to the effect
that the use of this device may have on any warranty either expressed or_
implied by the vehicle manufacturer.




                                                                            eomememimmemicmmmm


BALL—MATIC CORPORATION                    j    EXECUTIVE ORDER D~9—5
        .                         >                 (Page 2 of 2)



THIS EXECUTIVE ORDER DOES NOT CONSTITUTE A CERTIFICATION, ACCREDITATION,
APPROVAL, OR ANY OTHER TYPE OF ENDORSEMENT BY THE AIR RESOURCES BOARD OFf
ANY CLAIMS OF THE APPLICANT CONCERNING ANTI—POLLUTION BENEFITS OR ANY
ALLEGED BENEFITS OF THE "BALL—MATIC AIR INJECTOR® DEVICE.

Section 17500 of the Business and Professions Code makes untrue or mis—
leading advertising unlawful, and Section 17534 makes violation punishable
as a misdemeanor.

Section 43644 of the Health and Safety Code provides as follows:

     "43644.   (a)} No person shall install, sell, offer for sale, or
     advertise, or, except in an application to the state board for
     certification of a device, represent, any device as a motor vehicle
     pollution control device for use on any used motor vehicle unless
     that device has been certified by the state board. No person shall
     sell, offer for sale, advertise, or represent any motor. yehicle
     po]]ut1on control device as a certified device which, in fact, is
     not a certified dev1ce. Any violation of this subdivision is a
     misdemeanor."        109

Any apparent violation of the conditions of this Executive Order will be
submitted to the Attorney General of Californta for such action as he
deems advisable.


Executed at Sacramento, California, th1s
                                      C> day of September; 1977.



                            mustm
                             .
                                      Deputy Executive Officer




                                                                        ommrememermsmymmn


                           State of California
                           AIR RESQURCES BOARD

                           September 19, 1977
                 Evaluation of the Ball—Matic Corporation
           "Ball—Matic Air Injector" Device for Compliance
           with the Requirements of Section 27156 of the
             —           California Vehicle Code


 Introduction

 The'Béi]-Mafic:Corporation,of 1429 Palo Loma, Orange, California 92669

 thas submitted an application requesting an extension of a previously

 granted exemption from the prohibitions of Section 27156 of the

 California Vehicle Code for the "Ball—Matic Air Injector" for the 1978

 and ofder model year vehicles.        Section 27156 of the Vehicle Code prohibits

 the advertisement, sale and instai1ation of any device or mechanism

 which reduces the effectiveness of the motor vehicle emission control

 system.


 The Air Resources Board (ARB) staff had evaluated this device previously

 (Staff Report dated November 5, 1576) and'found the device had no

 adverse effects on the emission control system.       Executive Order O—9—4

 was issued on November 29} 1976 to Ball—Matic Corporation for its

 "Ball~Matic Air Injector" for 1977 and older model—year véhicles.       The

_ applicant has requested that this exemptfon be extended to include the

 1978 mode] year vehicles. (Exhibit A).


11.    System Description and Function

       The "Ball—Matic‘" device consists of a filter, plastic ball, spring, and

       a metal housing with parts used to insert the device between the PCV

       valve and carburetor.    The name "Ball—Matic Air Injector" is printed on

       a durable Tabe] pasted to the bottom of the device housing.        According

       to the applicant, this device is designed to improve fuel economy and

       engine performance.

       The device has a modq]ating poppet which meters the quantity of air

       bleed into the engine.    Engine manifu]d vacuum determines fhe degree

       of poppet opening.    Maximum air flow (1.5 SCFM) occurs at low vacuum

       {~3 in. Hg, high speed and wide open throttie) and minimum flow (0.1 SCFM)
       occurs at high vacuum (~18 in. Hg, idle and deceleration}.        When the
       engine is not operating, the poppet is in the open position.


111. System Evaluation                                               ,

       The applicant states that there is no change in the unit or its application.

      .CVS—75 emission tests made by the ARB laboratory on a 1975 Pinto, a Yega

       and a Datsun did not show a significant increase in emissions.         (Reference

       ARB Report titied Evaluation of the Ball—Matic Air Injector Device for

       Compifance with the Requirements of Section 27156 of the California

      _ Vehicle Code dated September 10, 1975) the vehicles chosen all had small

       engines since these are most susceptible to the "air bleed" type of

       add—on devices.   The emission results of these tests are as follows:


Vehicle                     Emisstons (grams/mile)            Fuel Economy miles/gal
                           Baseline      With Device          Baseline    With Device
                        mC cCO Nox C co Nox:
1975 Ford Pinto      (1) 0.3   2.6   2.0   0.3   2.6   2.1      18.0       17.8
          —          (2) 0.2   2.4   1.1   0.2   3.0   1.1      13.6       14.7
                     (2) 0.2   2.9   1.0   0.3   3.7   1.0      13.8       13.8

1975 Datsun             0.3    3.0   2.0   0.3   1.5   1.7      20.1       22.2
1975 Vega               0.4    6.9   1.6   0.5   6.2   I1.6     17.2       17.0
   Overall Averages     0.3    4.0   1.5   0.3   3.4   1.5      16.5       17.1

(1) License #194LVF
(2) License # 195LVF (2 tests)

These results are within experimental variations although some anomaites

were apparent.    The average of all available data indicated there was

no significant effect on emissions with the device.


Bench flow tegts on the valive showed a max%mum flow rate of 0.1 cubic

feet a minute for 18 inchés mercury vacuum and 1.5 cubic feet a minute

for 3 inches mercury vacuum.     The ARB staff felt that there—was no

need to run bench flow or emission tests ofi the device since the device

flow characteristics were found to be identical when it was tested a

seéond time.     (Reference ARB Report titled "Evaluation of the Ball—Matic

Corporation".    "Ball—Matic Air Injector" Device for Compliance with the

Requirements of Section 27156 of the California Vehicle Code dated

November 5, 1976}.

The amount of air bleed allowed by the device was insignificant and con—

sequently no adverse effect on exhaust emissions was detected

in the above emission tests.


       The 1978 vehicle emission control systems are basically the same

       as the 1977 systems except for some vehicles which are equipped

       with mechanisms that make the engine extremely sensitive to air fuel

       mixture variations.     These new systems include the Chrysler‘s Electronic

       Lean Burn System (ELB), Volvo‘s three—way Catalyst, and Bosch Jetronic

       Fuel Injection System and the Variable Venturi Carburetor System.       It

       is the staff‘s judgment that the installation of the fiBall-Matic"

       device on the vehicles equipped with the above new exhaust emission

       control systems could adversely affect the engine performance and

       operation.


IV.    Manufacturer‘s Claims

       The staff believes the installation of the device will not provide the

      . fuel economy claims.   On a typical small size engine the amount of air

       bleed allowed by the device is less than 1% of the air flow at all

       operating conditions. These air bleed rates will not significantly

       affect the air—fuel ratio or manifold vacuum.    In addition prevfous

       emission tests by the ARB Laboratory did not show significant improvement

      in the fuel economy of the vehicles tested when the "Ball—Matic" device

       was installed.   (Reference ARB Report titled "Evaluation of the Ball—

       Matic Corporation "Ball—Matic Air Injector" device for Compliance with

       the Requirements of Section 27156 of the California Vehicle Code dated

       November 5, 1976.)

       Conclusions and Recommendations

       The staff is of the obinion that the installation of this devfce would

       not affect the performance of the emission control system.


Therefore the staff recommends that the "Ball—Matic" Corporation be

granted an exemption from the prohibitions of MVC Section 27156 for

1978 and older vehicles except for those vehicles equipped with:

1)   Chrysler‘s Electronic Lean Burn (ELB) System
2)   Volvo‘s three—way catalyst ,
3)   Bésch Jetronic Fuel Injection Systems
4)   Variable Venturi Carburetor Systems

The staff therefore recommends adoption of Executive Order D—9—5.


                                                        (Page 1 of 2)

                          State of California
                          AIR RESQURCES BOARD

                        EXECUTIVE ORDER D—9—6 .
               Relating to Exemptions under Section 27156
                           of the Vehicle Code


                         BALL—MATIC CORPORATION
                        "BALL—MATIC AIR INJECTOR"


Pursuant to the authority vested in the Air Resources Board by Section
27156 of the Vehicle Code; and

Pursuant to the authority vested in the undersigned by Sections 39515 and
39516 of the Health and Safety Code and Executive Order G—45—5;

IT IS ORDERED AND RESOLVED: That the installation of the "Ball—Matic Air
Injector" manufactured by Ball—Matic Corporation of 1429 Palo Loma, Orange,
California 92669, has been found to not reduce the effectiveness of required
motor vehicle pollution control devices and, therefore, is exempt from the
prohibitions of Section 27156 of the Vehicle Code for 1979 and older vehicles
except for those vehicles equipped with:

          1.   Three way catalyst with feed back system.
          2.    Fuel injection systems.
          3.    Variable venturi carburetor systems.
The device consists of an air modulating valve with a filter and is inserted
into the PCV line. This valve permits a small amount of additional air
to enter the PCV line. This device can be identified by the name "Ball—Matic
Air Injector" permanently stamped at the bottom of the device housing.

This Executive Order is valid provided that installation instructions
for this device will not recommend tuning the vehicle to specifications
different from those listed by the vehicle manufacturer.                     &

Changes made to the design or operating conditions of the device, as
exempted by the Air Resources Board, that adversely affect the per—
formance of a vehicle‘s pollution control system shall invalidate
this Executive Order.

Marketing of this device using an identification other than that shown
in this Executive Order or marketing of this device for an application
other than those listed in this Executive Order shall be prohibited unless
prior approval is obtained from the Air Resources Board.

This Executive Order does not constitute any opinfon as to the effect
that the use of this device may have on any warranty either expressed or
implied by the vehicle manufacturer.


BALL—MATIC CORPORATION                            EXECUTIVE ORDER D—9—6
"BALL—MATIC AIR INJECTOR"                             (Page 2 of 2)



THIS EXECUTIVE ORDER DOES NOT CONSTITUTE A CERTIFICATION, ACCREDITATION,
APPROVAL, OR ANY OTHER TYPE OF ENDORSEMENT BY THE AIR RESOURCES BOARD OF
ANY CLAIMS OF THE APPLICANT CONCERNING ANTI—POLLUTION BENEFITS OR ANY
ALLEGED BENEFITS OF THE "Ball—Matic Air Injector" device.

No claim of any kind, such as "Approved by Air Resources Board" may be made
with respect to the action taken herein in any advertising or other oral
or written communication.

Section 17500 of the Business and Profess1ons Code makes untrue or mis—
leading advertising unlawful, and Section 17534 makes violation punishable
as a misdemeanor.

Section 43644 of the Health and Safety Code provides as follows:

     "43644.   (a) No person shall install, sell, offer for sale, or
     advertise, or, except in an application to the state board for
     certification of a device, represent, any device as a motor vehicle
     poliution control device for use on any used motor vehicle unless
     that device has been certified by the state board.  No person shall
     sell, offer for sale, advertise, or represent any motor vehicle
     pollution control device as a certified device which, in fact, is
     not a certified device. Any violation of this subdivision is a
     misdemeanor."

Any apparent violation of the conditions of this Executive Order will be
submitted to the Attorney General of California for such action as he
deems advisable.

Executive Order D—9—5 dated October 20, 1978, is superseded and of no
further force and effect.


Executed at El Monte, California, this   5;_5;
                                           day of November, 1978.



                                ‘/G?
                                   Hass,
                                     Chief
                                   Vehicle Emissions Control Division


                     State of California
                     AIR RESOURCES BOARD
                      November 1, 1978

          Evaluation of the Ball—Matic Corporation
       "Ball—Matic Air Injector" Device for Compliance
        with the Requirements of Section 27156 of the
                \—California Vehicle Code



Introduction

The Ball—Matic Corporation of 1429 Palo Loma, Orange, California

92669 has submitted an application requestiggaan extension of a

previously granted exemption from the prohibitions of Section

27156 of the California Vehicle Code for the "Ball—Matic Air In—

jector" for the 1978 and older model year vehicles.     Section 27156

of the Vehicle Code prohibits the advertisement, sale and installa—

tion of any device or mechanism which reduces the effectiveness of

the motor vehicle emission control system.


The Air Resources Board (ARB) staff had evaluated this device pre—

viously (Staff Report dated September 19, 1977) and found the device

had no adverse effects on the emission control system.    Executive

Order D—9—5 was issued on October 20, 1977 to Ball—Matic Corporation

for its "Ball—Matic Air Injector" for 1978 and older model—year

vehicles with certain exceptiofis.   The applicant has requested that

this exemption be extended to include the 1979 model year vehicles.

{Exhibit A).


BALL—MATIC CORPORATION                            EXECUTIVE ORDER D—9—6
"BALL—MATIC AIR INJECTOR"                             (Page 2 of 2)



THIS EXECUTIVE ORDER DOES NOT CONSTITUTE A CERTIFICATION, ACCREDITATION,
APPROVAL, OR ANY OTHER TYPE OF ENDORSEMENT BY THE AIR RESOURCES BOARD OF
ANY CLAIMS OF THE APPLICANT CONCERNING ANTI—POLLUTION BENEFITS OR ANY
ALLEGED BENEFITS OF THE "Ball—Matic Air Injector" device.

No claim of any kind, such as "Approved by Air Resources Board" may be made
with respect to the action taken herein in any advertising or other oral
or written communication.

Section 17500 of the Business and Professions Code makes untrue or mis—
leading advertising unlawful, and Section 17534 makes violation punishable
as a misdemeanor.

Section 43644 of the Health and Safety Code provides as follows:

     "43644.   (a) No person shall install, sell, offer for sale, or
     advertise, or, except in an application to the state board for
     certification of a device, represent, any device as a motor vehicle
     pollution control device for use on any used motor vehicle unless
     that device has been certified by the state board.     No person shall
     sell, offer for sale, advertise, or represent any motor vehicle
     pollution control device as a certified device which, in fact, is
     not a certified device. Any violation of this subdivistion is a
     misdemeanor."

Any apparent violation of the conditions of this Executive Order will be
submitted to the Attorney General of California for such action as he
deems advisable.

Executive Order D—9—5 dated October 20, 1978, is superseded and of no
further force and effect.


Executed at El Monte, California, this   fig—j;
                                           day of November, 1978.



                                ‘/Gfi
                                   Hass,
                                     Chief
                                   Vehicle Emissions Control Division


                                                      ia
                                   a t e o f Ca1iforfi
                               s t             ES BOAR
                                                       D
                               AIR     RESOURC
                                                  1. 1978
                                  November
                                                     p oration
                                 B a \ \ — M atfic Cor Cotmpliance
                               e
                     on of th tor“ Device 10 ¢ 56 of the
            Evaluati       I njec                    211
                 tic ir                     Section
         “Ba\\-Ma Requirements of icle Code
          with the               ia Yeh
                       Ca\iforn



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                            C a 1 i f o rnia      V e h
                                                                                             c l e s >     Section
                     the                                                        ar vehi
   27156 of                                                 e r   model ye                                             alla~
                               e   1 9 7 g   and     g i  d
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                    for t    h
    jector“                                                                                                          ess of
                                                                                               t h e   e f fectiven
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                                                                                      evalua
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                                   c e s   B c a rd     ( A
                                                                                                  )   a n d  f ound the
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                                                                      ptembe y
                                                                                   19. 1977                                  e
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                                                                                                              o

                                                                                lder mo                   del—year
         Order D— g
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                                      Air Inje
                                                   ctor“                                          d that
                        1 — M a t ic                                         n t  h a s  requeste
          for its
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                                                  ti  ons . The                                    icles>
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                                                                               m o d e l Y ear ven
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                    wit                                              he 1979
                                             e d   t o  i nclude t
                                     exten d
                     P tion be
           this exem


                                          ‘———_—-_——__——__—-__—-_-——_-______““—————-.




11.     System Description and Function

        The "Ball—Matic"‘ device consists of a filter, plastic ball, spring,

        and a metal housing with parts used to insert the device into the

        PCV Tine.   The name fiBa11-Matic Air Injector" is printed on a

        durable label pasted to the bottom of the device housing.     According

        to the applicant, this device is designed to improve fuel economy

        and engine performance.


        The device has a modulating poppet which meters a quantity of air

        bleed into the engine.    Engine manifold vacuum determines the degree

      — of poppet opening.    A valve pruchased by the Air Resources Board in

      \ the open market showed a maximum air flow of (1.0 SCFM) at 7 in. Hg.

        vacuum and no flow above 7 in. Hg. vacuum (see flow curve).      As

        the vacuum decreases below 7 in. Hg. vacuum the air flow decreases

        very rapidly.


III. System Evaluation

        The applicant states that there is no change in the unit or its

        application.    CVS—75 emission tests made by the ARB laboratory on a

        1975 Pinto, a Vega and a Datsun did not_show a significant increase

        in emissions.    (Reference ARB Report titled Evaluation of the Ball—~

       Matic Air Injector Device for Compliance with the Requirements of

       Section 27156 of fihe Calffornia Yehicle Code dated September 19, 1975)

       The vehicles chosen all had small engines since these are most sus—

       ceptible to the "air bleed" type of add—on devices.     The emission

       results of these tests were as follows:


                             Emissions (grams/mile)                '
                         Baseline            With Device       Fue! Economy miles/ga
Vehicle                KC     CO    NOx     HC    CO    NOx    Baseline      MWith Devio

1975 Ford Pinto     (1) 0.3 2.6      2.0    0.3 2.6 2.1          18.0              17.8
     ‘              (2) 0.2 2.4      1.1    0.2 3.0 1.1          13.6.             14.7
                    (2) 0.2 2.9      1.0    0.3 3.7 1.0          13.8              13.8
1975 Datsun            0.3    3.0 2.0       0.3 1.5     1.7      20.1              22.2
1975 Vega              0.4 6.9       1.2    0.5   6.2   1.6      17.2              17.0
Qverall Averages       0.3    4.0    1.5    8.3   3.4   1.5      16.5              17.1

{1) License # 194LVF

{(2) License # 195LVF (2 tests)

     These results are within experimental variations although some

   . anomalies were apparent.       The average of all available data indicated

     there was no significant effect on emissions with the device.


     in order to update the previous report, the Air Resources Board

    purchased a valve in fhe open fiarket.         Bench flow tests on this vaive

    showed a maximum flow rate of 1.0 cubic feet a minute for 7 inches

    mercury vacuum and no fldw above 7 inches mercury vacuum.            The ARB

    staff felt that there was no need to run emission tests on the device

    since the device flow characteristics would have no significant effect

    on emissions.    Attached is a table showing air flows at various modes

    for different sized engines {column 4). FSince the greatest effect of

    this valve would be on small engines, the data forlthe 0—140 cubic inch

    engines will be considered.       At 7 inches of mercury vacuum the air flow

    would be approximately 18 cubic feet per minute or .073 lbs per cubic ft

    x 18 equals 1.3 lbs. of air.       Assuming an air fuel ratio of 14.5,

    this will give .09 lbs. of fuel.       With this device we would have 19
    cubic feet of air or 1.387—lbs. of air.        Divided by .09 lbs. of fuel


       gives 15.4 air fuel ratio.     Since the air flow decreases very

       rapidly at vacuums below 7 in. of Hg. vacuum, the effect of the

       air—fuel ratio change on a CVS—75 test would be negligible.        In

       addition, in many vehicles the power jet is activated at these

       vacuums and this would tend to eliminate any effect of the additional
       air.   This is also true for the Chrysler lean burn engines and the

       staff is of the opinion that the effect would also be negligible.


       The 1979 vehicle emission control systems are basically the same as

       the 1978 systems including some vehicles which are equipped with

      ° mechanisms that make the engine extremely sensitive to air—fuel mix—

       ture variations.    These new systems include VaTvo‘s.three-way

       catalyst, the Bosch Jetronic Fuel Injection System, and the Variable

       Vénturi Carburetor Syétem.     In the absence of any contrary data, it

       is the staff‘s judgment that the installation of the "Ball—Matic"

       device on the vehicles equipped with thé above exhaust emission

       control systems could adversely affect the engine performancé and

       operation.


IV.    Manufacturer‘s Claims

       The staff believes the installation of the device will not provide

       the fuel economy claims.     On a typical small size engine the amount of

       air bleed allowed by the device is negligible at‘operating conditions

       above 7 in. Hg vacuum.     At less than 7 in of Hg. vacuum the power

      jet is usually in operation which enriches the air fuel mix.        The

      small amount of additional air would not significantly effect the

      air—fuel ratio.     In addition previous emission tests by the ARB


 Laboratory did not show significant improvement in the fuel

 economy of the vehicles tested when the "Ball—Matic" device

 was installed.   (Reference ARB Report titled "Evaluation of the

 BalT—Matic Corproation "Ball Matic Air Injector" device for Compliance

 with the Requirements of Section 27156 of the California Vehicle Code

 dated November 5, 1978). _


 Conclusions and Recommendations

 The staff fs of the opinion that the installation of this device would

 not affect the performance of the conventional emission control system

‘ and therefore recommends that the "Ball—Matic" Corporation be granted

 an exemption from the prohibitions of MVC Section 27156 for 1979

 and older vehicles except for those vehicles equipped with:


      1.   Three—way catalyst with feed back system.

      2.    Bosch Jetronic Fuel Injection Systems.

      3.   Vafiab1e Venturi Carburetor Systems.


 The staff therefore recommends adoption of Executive Order D—9—6.


                                                                                  Ex en Bit 4A

ll:‘!«',{

                            / AT,M@      #HANORIHIDEONstpEREH   \«@   ORANGE, CALIFORNIA 92688

                 MTTCC OO C                                                      ELE
                                                           A.C. 714— 633 —8723

                                                          ORANGE, CALIF.
             AIR RESOURCES BOARD             ’            AUC. 21, 1978
             9528 TELESTAR AVE.
             EL MONTZ, CALIF. 91731
            — MB: G. HASS


                  DEAR SIR:
                  PLEASE BEVIEW OUR POSSIBILITES FOR AN EXTENSION OFP YOUR
                  EXECUTIVE ORDER P—9—5 (1978 AND OLDER VEHICLES), OUR AIr
                  BLEED VALVE (BALL—MATIC),.IS STILL THE SAME IN EVERY
                  RESPECT WITH NO CHANCES SINCE IAST YBAR.I AM ENCLOSING
                  A COPY OP A TEST RUN BY CHRYSLER CORP. WHICK Was
                  INSTALLED ON A NEW CHRYSLER LEAN BURN, WHICH LAST YEAR
                  YOU REQUESTED THAT WE NOT INS®ALL ON THESE CARS. THE
                  TEST APPEARED TO PO NO HARM AS FAR AS EMISSTONS Go.

                                           YOURS VERY TRULY
                                           LONNIE w. SMITH . PaFSs.

                  P.S. BOB VAN DERVEER (MANAGER) RAN THIS TEST FOR ME.


'l’                                                                                                                   .                   [!fl/i/,


  ate o e t oge age h ofe e e d o o e e ie ie e ake oi ol h ol c s o uoi te e cb t oke d ohe k e o e ol c e ol e ol o o o o o e se e ie o ake ohs o e e ce mt c e ie e t e
  *                                                                                           *


                                                   CHEYSLFFR COPPOFATION
                                                      US CPIVINC CYCLE
                                                   EMISSION 1E5% ErSULTS
                                          VEENON CA+— EMISSION TEST LAPOEATOFY
                                           SPECIAL TRST      SsINCLE FAG PROCFIURE

  TEST DATE                  7.19.78.                       V L +N+                                 7550 .                    TEST NO —                                     433 +


  MODEL              CH4S .                 C1ID         318.                   TEANS AUT                           0T Om                  4778 »

  BEY BULB 1EMP                             B4.            WET BULBR 1EMP                              712 +               K FACTOP                      1 @120

 BAPOMETER IN OF HG APS.                                           29.84             TIME OF TEST                             1030.          HPS

  DFL1A P IN HG                           3.03                HRL HUMIDITY 55.9 —%

  FLOW AS C.F—PFR FERV                                 0.2805                INLFT TEMP                    95.0

.                          FEMISSION                               CFAMS PER MILE                                                                    *
                            HC FID                                   0—04                                                     7»5000
                           CO NPIF                                   06.29                                                    n.noga
                          CO2 NBIL                                 457. 1P                                                    2. 4140
                     CHEMLU iox                                          uk 66.                                           Dyn.00O00
      101AL IfVOLUTION®                                         18929 +»
        IIMk 1N SFCONLS                                       765« K000
      pISTANCE IN MILERS                                       10. 4300

 EPA BUEL ECONOMY                                                19. 39

        COMPUTEED BY                       R1V»            ON         077219778                AT         13:26CE1
 aie o e e e e ie ode akeade e d ks ie ds o o oi o o o e o e e age t ode ol o ol e d ud oi ol o e e ote ol o ol e e e o e ie m e oc ode d age ode o o e ie e ie ate l ks ol d i e ol oke
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       #                                                                4


                                         CHPYSLEL COPPOERATIQNY
                                           US PREVINC CYCLE
                                         EMISSION 1EST FFSULTS
                                 VEPNON CA. FMISSION TRST LAROFATOFY
                                  SPFCIAL TEST —— SINCLE BAG PEOCEPUPF

       TEST DATE         7.19.78.            V e I «N +       ‘              7550.            IFST NO —                 433.


       MOEFL          CH4S.        CID      318.            IFANS AUT                  OEOm         4778 »

       URY BULb TFMP               84+       WRI BULB 1}MF                    72+         K FACTOR           1 .120

       EAPOMETFR IN OF HG ABS.                     29.44°         TIME OR      TEST           1030. _ HFS

       DELIA P IN HG              3.03         FEL HUMILITY 55.9 %

       FLOW AS C.F.PER EEV                 0.280§         INLFT1    TFMP       O9S.0

       .              EMISS1ON                   cBAms PFP MILF
                       C FID                        0.04                                   7.s000
                      CO NDIF                       0o .29                                 n.0024
                     cor NBIR                    457. 08                                   p.a160
                 — CHFMLU NOX                       2g63                                 118.0000
           TOTAL REVOLYTIONS                     159297.
             TIMF IN SFCONDS                   7e5.9000
           DIS1ANCE IN MILEFS                   10. 4300
       BPA    BUHI,   RCUONOMY                    19 » 32


             COMPCOTHL    BY     R1V»        ON     07Z197 78           Al     P3 : 3PCHT
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                             in


   Six *                   asoline=—Saving‘Lad gSets




                                                                                                                                             h netpesee comenepeg,xn t C
©
   Most people stop believing in genies and tooth fairies long           simulated city driving, with its frequent stops and starts, by
   before they‘re old enough to drive a car. Yet some motorists          driving a one—mile course at an average of 18 mph. Our 55—
   continue to buy various "miracle" devices that are supposed           mph constant—speed test simulated a long trip on an interstate
   to "Jet assist" a car‘s engine, "convert air into energy," or .       highway. We ran yet another test on a 33—mile segment of our
   "bombard" gasoline with "pre—ionized radiant energy" to               195—mile test trip, at speeds up to 55 mph and at an average
   save gasoline.                                                        of—45 mph; the route included hills, curves, and several
      None of the many such devices we‘ve tested in past years           traffic lights and stop signs. We performed enough tests so
   has even come close to living up to the claims. Neverthcless,         that a statistically significant improvement—as little as !4
   we tried again, with the six gadgets described in this report.        mpg—would have shown up.
   The gadgets, whose prices range from $2.95 to $30, are of                Since the claims made for the six gadgets would be par—
   four basic types: air—bleed valves, which add extra air to the        ticularly tempting to the owner of a gasoline—guzzling car, we
   air—fuel mixture; an ignition spark intensifier; a fuel—pressure      bought as our test vehicle a used 1972 Pontiac LeMans sta—
   regulator; and a capacitive—discharge (CD) ignition system.           tion wagon with a 350—cubic—inch V8 and an automatic trans—
      The ads for the six gadgets promise a plethora of benefits,        mission, We checked the car thoroughly, gave it a major
   including easier engine starting, smoother running, "blazing"         tune—up, and equipped it with our highly accurate fuel—mile—
   pick—up. fonger engine life, and reduced emissions. But since         age test equipment. We kept variables to a minimum by
   the main thrust of the ads is more miles per gallon or per            running each test without the gadget and then—on the same
   tankful, we restricted our tests to fuel—economy runs, We             day and with the same driver—with the gadget installed, We




   |
   [
   ||
    i|
   |
   |
   Ram—Jet Supercharger                          Ball—Matic Air Injector                       Spark Master Intensifier
   Price: $13—15.                                Other names: Turbo—Dyne Energy Cham—          Price: $2.95.
   Distributors: Almquist Mfg., NYC, Con—        ber. G—R Gas Saver Valve.                     Distributors: J.C. Whitney & Co., Chicago.
   sumers Co—Operative Service, Chicago.         Price: $13—16.                                Triamics Corp., Riverdale, NJ.
   Endura Products, Cleveland. KM Enter—         Distributors: Pratt—American Div., Ameri—     What is it? A plastic—covered device that
   prises, Chicago. RJ Supercharger, NYC.        can Consumer Inc., Philadelphia. C. I.        plugs into the center of the ignition dis—
   What is it? An air—bleed valve that is in—    Ene:gy Development Inc., Tarzana, Calif.      tributor cap. An air gap in the circuit
   stalled in the rubber hose between the        What is it? An air—bleed valve that con—      inside the device is supposed to give a
   positive—crankcase—ventilation (PCV) valve    nects to the intake manifold or to the PCV    hotter spark.
   and the engine intake system. It is sup—      port on the carburetor. It claims to work     Gasoline—mileage claim: Up to 15 percent
   posed to allow additional air to enter be—    on a principle similar to that of the Ram—    more gasoline mileage.
   low the carburetor during conditions such     Jet Supercharger, preceding. The sales        CU‘s test results: No significant change in
   as acceleration and hill—climbing. The ads    pitch includes an endorsement by former       gasoline mileage.
   claim that, under such conditions, the car—   astronaut Gordon Cooper.
   buretor normally mixes too little air with    Gasoline—mileage claim: Up to almost
   the gasoline, thus wasting gasoline.          twice the mileage.
   Gasoline—milenge claim: Up to 50 extra        CU‘s test results; No significant change in
   miles per tonkful.              .             gasoline mileage.
.U’s test results: No significant change in
  asoline mileage.

   630                                                                                                                  NOVEMBER 1978



                                                                                                                                             b


     drove 4500 miles and used 360 gallons of gasoline during               save fuel is by driving properly. Some years ago we ran gaso—
     " * project.                                                           line—mileage tests with a 1974 Dodge Coronet V8. We drove
    ‘iota that some of the gadgets are marketed under several               the car aggressively on an 18—mile commuting trip that in—
        erent names and by several distributors. From the de—               cluded stops and starts. Then we repeated the trip but drove
     scriptions and the photographs, you should be able to iden—            carefully. In virtually the same driving time, we averaged
     tify essentially similar gadgets, even if they are marketed            8.9 mpg on the first trip and 16.6 mpg—almost twice the
     under still other names.                                               mileage~on the second trip.
                                                                               Here are some economy tips:
     RECOMMENDATIONS                                                           After starting a cold engine, be ready to drive off at mod—
     When you‘re thinking of buying any product—and especially              crate speed as soon as the engine is running smoothly. Obvi—
     a gadget that promises to turn a gasoline guzzler into an              ously, a car gets zero mpg at idle. Further, when the engine is
     economy car~we suggest that you take guidance from the                 cold and the choke is on, fuel consumption is very high.
     following—rule of thumb:If the claim seems too good to be—.            Driving off immediately, rather than idling, warms up the
     lieve, don‘t believe it.                                               engine more quickly, Avoid fast starts and hard braking. Try
        None of the six tested devices affected the gasoline mileage        to anticipate traffic conditions so you can keep braking and
     of our Pontiac test car measurably under any driving condi—            accelcration to a minimum. Maintain steady, moderate
     tions. We didn‘t bother to test the other claims made for the          speeds on the highway; high speeds cost gasoline. Keep your
     gadgets, and we don‘t think that anyone should take those              right foot as steady as possible on the accelerator pedal.
     claims seriously.                                                         The condition of your car is important. Keep the engine in
        The only possible exception is the capacitive—discharge ig—         good tunc; a misfiring spark plug or a clogged air fiter can
     nition, It might make spark plugs and distributor points last          waste lots of fuel. Keep your tires properly inflated, Use the
     fonger—but it wouldbe a long time before the saving thus               air—conditioner as little as possible. Don‘t use the trunk as a
     made would equal the cost of the device and its installation.           storage compartment; extra weight wastes fuel, A roof rack
       Actually, you can increase your car‘s gasoline mileage                causes considerable wind resistance. If you have a removable
     dramatically without adding any gadgets. The best way to                rack, leave it off when you‘re not using it.




     Capacitive Discharge                           Electronic Supercharger                        Super Energy Cell
     Ignition System                                Other name: Sol—R—Volt Electronic Radia—       Price: $7 for domestic cars, $8 for foreizn
     Price: $30.                                    tion Injector & Engine Powerizer.              cars.
     Distributor: J.C. Whitney & Co., Chicago.      Price: $10.                                    Distributors: J.C. Whitney & Co., Chicago.
     What is if? An electronic ignition device,     Distributors: J. C. Whitney & Co., Chi—        Milemaster, Exeland, Wis.
     connected between the distributor and the      cago, Sotar—Volt Co., Fullerton, Calif.        What is if? A fuel—pressure regulator in—
     coil, that stores and generates electrical     What is it? A device that replaces the         stalled between the fuel pump and car—
     energy to fire the spark plugs. A capaci—      rotor in the ignition distributor. Despite     buretor. The device is supposed to limit the
     tive—discharge system provides the same        a printed circuit board and other dress—up     fuel pressure and prevent too much gaso—
     amount of electrical energy at all engine      features, it performs the same basic func—     line from being pumped into the carbu—
     speeds; a conventional ignition system         tion as the rotor.                             retor at high speed. Installation requires
     delivers less energy at high engine speeds.                                                   cutting the fuel line.
                                                    Gasoline—mileage claim: 15 to 35 percent
     Gasoline—mileage elaim: 10 percent more        more gasoline mileage.                         Gasoline—mileage claim; Up to 20 to 25
     gasoline mileage "is typical."                                                                percent less gasoline consumption.
                                                    CU‘s test results: No significant change in
     C€U‘s test results: No significant change in   gasoline mileage.                              CU‘s test results; No significant change in
     gasoline mileage (but see the Recommen—                                                       gasoline mileage.
w




     dations, above}.




     CONSUMER REPORTS



Document Created: 2005-09-01 12:14:10
Document Modified: 2005-09-01 12:14:10

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