Approval Details

Valid E.O.


This Executive Order approved the specified parts on on November 30, -0001.
As of Monday, December 10th, 2018 this Executive Order has not been overturned or superceeded.

This Executive Order may be listed as:
  • C.A.R.B.E.O. D-189
  • Executive Order 189 / D189
  • ARB # D-189
  • Executive Order No: D-189
  • C.A.R.B. No. D-189
  • Resolution D-189
For Free CARB Executive Order Status verification, email an image of the device Executive Order label as well as the Year/Make/Model and Test Group # of the vehicle to [email protected]

Download: Executive Order D-189 PDF

D-189 Document:

                            ce                      mo    tT   (Page L of‘2)
                                 State of California ~
                                 AIR'RESOURCES BOARD

                              EXECUTIVE ORDER D—189
                    Relating to Exemptions under Section 27156
                               of the Vehiclie Code                 ~

                                   TECHNOLOGIES, LTD.
                                PLATINUM YAPOR INJECTOR

WHEREAS, Vehicle Code Section 27156 and Title 13 California Code of
Requlations (hereafter "CCR") Section 2222({e), authorize the California Air
Resources Board (ARB) and its Executive Officer to exempt add—on and
modified parts from the prohibitions of Vehicle Code Section 27156.

WHEREAS, Technologies, Ltd. has—applied to the ARB for exemption from the
prohibitions of Vehigle Code Section 27156 for the Platinum Vapor Injector
device.                 —
WHEREAS, pursuant to the authority vested in the Executive Officer by Health
and Safety Code Section 39515 and in the Chief, Mobile Source Division by
Health and Safety Code Section 39516 and Executive Order G—45—5, the Air
Resources Board finds:

   1.> Platinum Vapor Injector is an add—on'device that introduces a small
          amount of platinum and rhenium into the intake manifold of the

   2.     Platinum Vapor Injector is 1ntended for use with a required motor
          vehicle pollution control system.

   3.     Platinum Vapor Injector by being installed in the engine alters the
          original design of a motor vehicle poliution control system.

  -4.     Platinum Yapor Injector is a device subject to the prohibitions of
          Vehicle Code Section 27156 and an add—on part as defined by 13 CCR
          Section 1900(b)(1).

  5.      Platinum Yapor InJector does not reduce the effectiveness of any
          required motor vehicle pollution control device.

  6.      The ARB in the exercise of technical judgement,.is aware of no basis
          on which the Platinum Vapor Injector device will provide either a
          decrease in exhaust emissions or an increase in fuel economy.

  7.    It has not been determined what effect the use of Platinum Yapor
        Injector may have on any warranty, either expressed or impliéd, by
        the manufacturer of a motor vehicle on which the device is installed.

  8.    Platinum Vapor Injector is not a certified motor vehicle pollution
        control device pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 43644.

  9.    The ARB by granting an exemption to Technolog1~4f Ltd. for the
        Platinum Yapor Injector device does not recommend or endorse in any
        way the Platinum Vapor Injector device for emissions reduction, fuel
        economy, or any other purpose.

TECHNOLOGIES, LTD.         .         .               EXECUTIVE ORDER D—189
PLATINUM VAPOR INJECTOR                              (Page 2 of 2)

IT IS HEREBY RESOLVED that Platinum Vapor Injector is exempt from the
prohibitions of Vehicle Code Section 27156 for installation on 1989 and
earlier model—year diesel—powered vehicles subject to the following
conditions :               f                             >

   1.   This exemption shall not apply to any device, apparatus, or mechanism
        advertised, offered for sale or sold with, or installed on, a motor
        vehicle prior to or concurrent with transfer to an ultimate
        purchaser .                              +

   2.   No changes are permitted to the device as described in the
        staff report. Any changes to the device applicable model—ygar, or
        other factors addressed in this Executive Order must be evaluated and
        approved by the ARB prior to marketing in California.

   3.   Marketing of this device using an identification other than that
        shown—in this Executive Order or marketing of this device for an
        application other than those listed in this Executive Order shall be
        prohibited unless prior approval is obtained from the Air Resources®
        Board. Exemption of.this product shall mnot be construed as an
        exemption to sell, offer for sale, or advertise any component of the
        product as an individual device.

   4.   Any oral or written‘references to this Executive Order or its content
        by the Technologies, Ltd., its principals, agents, employees,
        distributors, dealers, or other representatives must include the
        disclaimer that the Executive Order or the exemption it provides is
        not an endorsement or approval, of any fuel economy or emissions
        reduction claims for Platinum Yapor Injector and is only a finding
        that the device is exempt from the prohibitions of Vehicle Code
        Section 27156.                                         >       ~

Violation of any of the above conditions shall be grounds for revocation of
this order. The order may be revoked only after ten day written notice of
intention to revoke the order, in which period the holder of the order may
request in writing a hearing to contest the proposed revocation.  If a
hearing is requested, it shall be held within ten days of receipt of the
request and the order may not be revoked until a determination after hearing
that grounds for revocation exist.                   >

Executed at E1 Monte, California, this    /4F/?z;y of Apri

                                         K. D. Drachand, Chief
                                         Mobile Source Division

                        State of California
                        AIR RESOURCES BOARD


                           April, 1989

                                            Issue Date:   April, 1989


                          ~Mobile Source Division

                            State of California
                            Air Resources Board
                            9528 Telstar Avenue
                            E1 Monte, CA 91731

(This report has been reviewed by the staff of the California Air Resources
Board and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the
contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Air Resources
Board, nor does mention of trade names or commercial products constitute
endorsement or recommendation for use.)


          Technologies, Ltd. of P. 0. Box 25324 Albuquerque, NM 87125, applied

for exemption from the prohibitions in Section 27156 of the California

Vehicle Code for their Platinum Vapor Injector (PVI) device.      The device is

designed for installation on 1989 and older model—year diesel—powered


          Based on the following:   (1) previous testing of the device by the

Air Resources Board (ARB) on a gasoline powered vehicle; (2) the emissions

test results on a diesel engine conducted by Detroit Diesel Corporation; (3)

the smoke opacity test results conducted by Southern California Rapid

Transit District (RTD); (4) the staff‘s engineering evaluation; and (5) the

exemption of devices that operate in a manner similar to PVI, the staff

believes that PVI will not have any effecfs on the exhaust emissions from

diesel—powered vehicles.

          The staff recommends that the PVI device be exempted from the

prohibitions in Vehicle Code Section 27156 and that Executive Order D—189 be



                                                          Page Number

SUMMARY                                                        i

CONTENTS                                                      1i

I.        INTRODUCTION                                         1

II.       CONCLUSION                                           1

III.   RECOMMENDATION                                          1

IV.       DEVICE DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION                     2

v.     EVALUATION                                              3
V1I.      DISCUSSION                                           4


       A.      PVI INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS                   5

          B.   PVI DRAWINGS                                    9





                          CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS


         Technologies, Ltd. of P. 0. Box 25324 Albuquerque NM $7125, has

applied for exemption from the prohibitions of Section 27156 of the

California Vehicle Code for their Platinum Vapor Injector (PVI) device.        The

device is designed for installation on 1989 and older model—year diesel—

powered vehicles.

         The applicant submitted a sample, drawings and specifications of the

device for our inspection and evaluation.


         Based on the following:   (1) previous testing of the device by the

Air Resources Board (ARB) on a gasoline powered vehicle; (2) the emissions

test results on a diesel engine conducted by Detroit Diesel Corporation; (3)

the smoke opacity test results conducted by Southern California Rapid

Transit District (RTD) ; (4) staff‘s engineering evaluation of the device;

and (5) the previous exemption of devices that operate in a manner similar

to PVI, the staff believes that PVI will not have any effects on exhaust

emissions or fuel economy.

         The staff recommends that Technologies, Ltd. be granted an exemption

from the prohibitions in California Vehicle Code Section 27156 for their

PVI device and that Executive Order ({E.0.) D—189 be issued.


       The PVI device is a vapor injection system.          It consists of a plastic

case, a 12 or 24 volt electrical hook—up and a platinum vapor supply hose.

The case dimensions are:      6—1/4" width; 2—5/8 depth; and 8" height.       The

case contains a reservoir with ethylene glycol solution, a small vacuum

pump, and tubings which connect the reservoir to the vacuum pump.           The

vacuum pump is to compensate for the lack of vacuum in a diesel engine at

low rpm.

       The reservoir is made of molded plastic .           There are two outlet

nipples with a 0.015 orifice on the upper part of the reservoir both of

which are connected to the vacuum pump.           A 5/8" fill tube with a screw cap

is made an integral part of the reservoir.          A 1/16" hole is to be drilled in

the middle of the cap, during installation of the device, as the only

opening to the atmosphere.          The bottom of the tube is connected to the

reservoir.   A fill line is marked on the side of the reservoir to indicate

the limit of the reservoir‘s filling capacity to approximately one—half of

its volume (nominal fill is approximately one pint).           The proprietary

platinum solution is to be added to the reservoir when the installation is

complete.    See appendix A for installation instructions and Appendix B for

PVI drawings.

       In operation, negative pressure from the vacuum pump at low rpm and

the engine intake manifold at high rpm is applied to the upper portion of

the reservoir through the connecting tubings.          This allows air from the

atmqsphere to enter through the fill tube into the bottom portion of the

reservoir.   The air then bubbles through the fluid and rises to the upper

portion of the reservoir to be mixed there with the liquid vapor.      This

mixture is then drawn into the engine‘s intake manifold via the air intake

hose between the air filter and the intake manifold.

v.       Y             ION
       Evaluation of the PVI device is based on the following:

             A.   The ARB‘s comparative emission tests on a 1980 model—year

Chevrolet Monte Carlo with a 305 CID gasoline powered engine.     The results

does not show any effects on exhaust emissions or fuel economy.      See

Appendix C for the ARB‘s comparative emissions test results.

             B.   Detroit Diesel Corporation‘s back—to—back tests on a 1988

model—year diesel engine using federal transient emission test cycle.         The

results shows that the device has negligible effects on the exhaust

emissions.   The comparative test results are shown in Appendix D.

             C.   The RTD‘s comparative smoke tests on diesel buses to

determine the effects of the PVI on exhaust smoke opacity.     The results

indicate that the PVI has no effect on exhaust smoke from diesel buses.

Appendix E shows the RTD test results.

             D.   Staff‘s engineering evaluation of the device indicate that

the PVI does not have any effects on exhaust emissions or fuel economy.

             E.   The previous evaluation of devices that operate similar to

PVI showed that vapor injector devices that meet ARB‘s requirement of

orifice size would not have any adverse effects on the exhaust emissions.

       Technologies, Ltd. claims that; (1) the platinum solution aids in a

faster and more complete combustion of the fuel by catalytic split of

molecular 0, to radical 0; (2) reduction of smoke up to 60%; (3) reduction

in CO emissions; and (4) additional engine life time.   However, the company

does not offer any scientific explanation to substantiate these claims.

The comparative emission test results that were used for evaluation of the

device did not show any effects on the exhaust emissions.

       In the past the ARB has evaluated several vapor injectors that

operate similar to PVI.   During these evaluations, it was found that the

air—bleed orifice size of the device determines whether the device would

adversely affect vehicular emissions.   The PVI‘s orifice (0.015) is below

the maximum allowable limit.   Since qualifying for an exemption from

prohibitions of Vehicle Code Section 27156 is based on not adversely

effecting»exhaust emissions, the staff recommends that Technologies, Ltd. be

granted an exemption as requested.

                                                                    APPENDIX A
                                  TECHNOLOGIES, LTD.

                               INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS

                       THE PLATINUM VAPOR INJECTOR                   (PV1I)

  There are three components of the Platinum Vapor Injector (PVI) that
  are easily installed:

        1.     The   side—by—side          or    the    front—to—back           dispenser/pump
               container      case.              I   and Fig. II        —     sizes are on the
               diagrams .

        2.     The 12 or 24 volt electrical hookup.

        3.     The platinum vapor supply hose to the engine air supply.


  The side—by—side (Fig. I) dispenser case appears below:

Platinum Vapor —'—"—'5 yon
supply hose to                                                     Fill cap and vent
engine air intake      124      4.                                 thole in cap)

                                                               —Dispenser vertical
Plug for access
t3 pump potentisometer                                         *~Fiuig level
to adjust flow of
platinum vapor bubbles                                         ——Sight window to
      2        37                                                  observe bubble flow
DRIVER_ONLY.                       1                               when engine is running.

                         § 1/4" wWox 2 5/8"                    H

  The left—sided arrangement is exactly the same, except that the
  potentiometer hole is closer to the right corner of the case.

                                           World Headquarters
                            P.O. Box 25324 ® Albuquerque, NM 87125 ® U.S.A.
                                          Office: (505) 243—8300

                                                           APPENDIX & (CONTINUED)

                                                      The platinum vapor dispenser
                                                      can be placed at the left
                                                      or right position only at
                                                      the factory due to internal
Platinum vapor
hose to                                               All connections and supply
engine air intake.                                    instructions   apply    as
                                                      above or as follows.  The
                                                      pump potentiometer   hole
Plug fur access                                       is at the same position
pump pstentioneter                                    whether it is L or R.
to adjust flow of                                     Dispenser sight window is
platinum vapor bubbles.
                                                      to  observe bubble flow
                          3 1/8" W x 5" B xls“ x      when engine is running.
                                       Fig.   I1I

                  Installation of Dispenser/Pump Container Case
   a.     The back of the case has 1/4"         holes for bolt and nut or sheet
          metal  attachment.    Attach to the most       convenient  and
          gdyantageous position closest to the air intake and electrical
          injector pump terminal.   The back of the case also has 3/8"
          slots at the top and bottom to accommodate nylon ratchet
          straps for securing the device in some installations.

   b. _   DO NOT INSTALL THE PLATINUM VAPOR                INJECTOR   (PVI)       NEAR   OR

   c.     A few minutes of thought and diagnosis on the first installa—
          tion is necessary.   No definite instructions for placement
          can be given as there are many variations on the same engines
          or because of various under—the—hood accessories.


   The 12 (or 24) volt positive electrical supply to the vacuum pump
   has to be connected to the injector pump terminal. (RED WIRE IS
   POSITIVE.)  Carefully check your intended connection, so that the
   power goes on and off with the ignition key.    This is a MUST as
   power is to be supplied only while the engine is operating.                     Ground
   the black wire.


   The 3/16" platinum vapor supply hose is attached to the closest
   point, nearest to the engine of the intake air duct or to the
   intake side of the turbine (duct before turbine). The rubber air
   duct on large diesel engines can be drilled with a 1/4" drill
   very carefully three—fourths of its depth and then punctured with
   a sharp pointed awl.   The 3/16" x 1/4" plastic fitting is then
   inserted into this hole (the 45—degree angle is to be positioned
   opposite      airstream flow).     Insert the     45—degree —      1/4"    end first
   and    then    apply   rubber   silicone    to   seal    and   retain     in    proper

                                          — 6 —

                                                                     APPENDIX &A (CONTINUED)]
position.           The   3/16"       end    is   then      connected,    with     rubber    hose
supplied, to the pump at the container case with the 3/16" x 3/16"

On small diesel engines, the center of the air cleaner lid is
drilled with a 3/8" bit to accommodate the 90—degree nylon elbow
with the 3/16" nozzle.   NEVER                    INSTALL ANY PLATINUM VAPOR SUPPLY

On some engines, such as VW diesel Rabbits, the crankcase breather
hose, nearest the air cleaner box, is the best place for entry.
A 90—degree nylon elbow is inserted into a 3/8" hole at the top
of the breather hose and rubber silicone is applied to retain in
proper position.  The 3/16" end is then connected with rubber hose
to 3/16" pump hose.                      '

The above explanation serves as an example to explain the simplicity
of   the    installation        of     the    Platinum Vapor           Injector    (PVI).     All
installations are relatively                      easy,       requiring    little     time    and
adaption procedures.


The bubble flow on any engine at idle should be 30 to 35 bubbles
every 10     seconds.       The bubble flow rate is                 observed at the         sight
window      (Fig.    I or II).              At approximately 1500 RPM,              the bubble
flow rate should be about double.     Bubble flow is the same for
all engines, as only the concentration of the platinum is increased
to supply the requirements of larger engines consuming more fuel.

If the flow of bubbles needs to be requlated, it is done as follows:
The rubber seal plug on the pump is removed. Inside is a potenti—
ometer control with slots. A plastic screwdriver is supplied for
this adjustment.   Use plastic screwdriver only.   pO NOT USE A
METAL      _SCREWDRIVER     —     electrical          short    could    occur   and   the    pump
would be      ruined.           The    potentiometer           is   adjusted      clockwise    to
increase bubble flow — counterclockwise to decrease. Adjust while
engine is idling at the previous instruction rate of 30 to 35
bubbles every ten (10) seconds.    A faster rate of bubbles only
wastes platinunm.

The Platinum Vapor Injector                    (PVI)     is now operational and ready
for the platinum solution.   Do this while the engine is running.
Remove black cap on vertical tube and pour in the number of 1 oz.
platinum concentrate vials as follows:

       One vial for engines getting over 10 miles per gallon.
       Two vials for engines getting 5 to 10 miles per gallon.
     _ Three vials for engines getting below 5 miles per gallon.

Drill 1i/16"        hole in middle of cap — remove inner cap seal and
replace cap.         The hole in the cap is needed for vacuum and bubble
flow.      Mark the mileage and date of installation in obvious place.
Also keep data in glove compartment.    This is for reference to
replenish the platinum approximately every 6,000 miles or 200
hours for hourly usage on stationary units.

                                                  ~   7 —

                                               APPENDIX &A (CONTINHED)

Air Duct Brass Fitting Installation
(Alternative Method Into Metal Duct)

It may be more desirable to make the installation into the metal
duct of the air supply.   A Weatherhead #1541 is the ideal brass
fitting to do this.     The metal    duct will   need to be drilled and
tapped to receive this threaded fitting.          The end that goes into
the air duct will need an extension of 1 to 1 1/2 inch copper
tubing that is silver—soldered into place.   The end of the copper
tube should be ground to a 45—degree angle to acquire the most
venturi effect.   Be certain that the 45—degree angle is opposite
the airstream flow. Mark outside hex on fitting to verify position,
or use Weatherhead marking.     This is the most ideal way but is time—
consuming, and care must be taken not to allow grindings into the
air intake.    This will necessitate removing the rubber duct
connectors and carefully cleaning all internal areas before
assembling again. This fitting will be supplied at your request.
Ask for W.A.D. fitting.

                               CAUTION LIST

 1.   Do not install near or on anything hot.

 2.   Attach firmly to resist engine and road vibrations.

 3.     Attach (if possible} so the pump potentiometer is
      _ accessible and visible. ~

 4.   Connect red positive wire to injector pump terminal.

 5.   Make proper and complete electrical connections.

 6.   Hose connections should not leak — attach firmly.

 7.   Use only plastic screwdriver if you need to adjust
      potentiometer for bubble flow.

 8.   Never flow the platinum vapors through the air filter.

 9.   Drill 1/16" hole in vertical tube black cap and remove
      inner seal.

10.   Check all other previous instructions.

Phone your nearest represéentatives if any questions or difficulties

                       Technologies, Ltd.
                       World Headquarters
                        P.O.   Box 25324
                       Albuquerque, NM        87125
                        Office:     (505) 243—8300

                                  _ g _

                                                        ME itPoet

                                                                  € XICNHIIYV
BE WIRED TOFIT            vaCuUit PuMpP       woyiepoyiNer Some

                            Wds H9IH — NOlLIGONOD NOlLVH3dO 391430
                                                                     34NIINF OLNI NMYH40

                                                                          YIY 140 IMNIOA
                         zusos sanMh83oo          anndg Wnnova           _Ag QILYTIN93H4
                                                                          MOld WNNNILYTIJd
              "OTe?395 H15
                         &                             ©

         0                               A                             En
                                                                    AR iftkke"Port

                                                                   MIN. AIR
i                                                                               .


                                                                                     (CINNTINOD) C XICNXAdY
    ,__P LATINUM   FLOW                VACUUM PUMP      F&”DSOEB%WNER BOTTLE

     REGULATED      BY
                             DEVICE OPERATION CONDITION — LOW RPM

                                                                BAELEDN JA    V

                                ARB conyemmm mMISSIONS TEST RESULTS
                         OFIRST BASELINE TEST SErIES 2.
                          Exhaust Emissions                      Fuel Economy
TEST                            {in ga/mi)                       (in mi/gal)
CONF IGURATI ON          HC            co          NOx         C1TY        HIGHWAY
Baseline             0. 27            5.72         0.45        14.0    >     20.6
Baseline             0.23             5.44         0.47        14.0          20.6
     AVERAGE         0.25 0 —         5.58         0. 46       14.0          20.6

                                     TABLE 3
                           FIRST— DEVICE TEST SERIES                          2o
                          Exhaust Emissions                      Fuel Economy
TEST                             (in gm/mi)                      {in mi/gal)
CONFIGURATION            HC           fa)          NOx         CITY _    HIGHWAY
Device at 0 Miles    0.24             4.95         0.46        13.7          19.8
Device at 0 Miles    0.36             5.11         0.44        13.7          20.2
     AVERAGE         0. 30            5.03         0. 45       13.7          20.0

                                         TABLE 4       i.
                              SECOND DEVICE TEST SERIES
                          Exhaust Emissions                      Fuel Economy
TEST                 ®          {in gm/mi})                      (1n mi/gal)          >
CONF IGURATI ON          HC _          co          NOx:        Ccity       HIGHWAY
Device after 1,000
  miles              0.38              5.22           0.46     14.2          20.4
                     0. 32            —4.87           0.48 >   14.7          20.5
                     0.25              3.62           0.48     14.3          21.0
     AVERAGE         0. 32             4.57 ;         0.47     14.4          .20:.6

                                            TABLE 5
                         © SECOND BASELINE TEST SERIES

                     ~    Exhaust Emissions                      Fue?l Economy
TEST                            {in gm/mi)                       {in—mi/gat)
CONFIGURATION            HC       '     CO                     CITY       HIGHWAY
Baseline after
1,000 mite
device tests                           5.53            0. 42   14.2     22 ——
  —~» MHEABRAR                         krak :   rimece «MWnun AHWEH~~Ze iss               Cw
                                              ~ 12 —

                                               APPENDIX   D



BSNOx               10.33                 10.40           CM/BHP—HR
BSHC                 0.39                  0 .42          GM/BHP—HR
BSCO                 2.33                  2.25           GM/BHP—HR
BSP                  0.273                 0.268          GM/BHP—HR     ,
BSPC                 0 .294                0.396          LBS/BHP—HR


1800    RPM            1.6                 1.3                &
 800    RPM            3.6                 4. 2               %
 106    RPM            8.3                 9.2                %
 600    RPM           14 .2               16.7                %

1800    RPM          914.2               914.9            LB—FT
 800    RPM          850.5               954.7            LB—FT
 700    RPKM         872.4               883 .4           LB—PFT
 600    RPM          BO5. 6       .      804.8            LB—FT

1800    RPH              .351                .350         LBS/BHP—HR
 800    RPM              .38 4.              .383         LBS/BHP—HR
 700    RPM              +423                «419         LBS/ BHP~HR
 600    RPM              .461                .459         LBS/BHP—HR

                                      o3 —

                                                                                                AFPENDIX E
                                                      RTD‘S TEST REPORT
                                    EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT
                                      EQUIPMENT ENGINEERING SECTION
                                      INTERDEPARTMENTAL MEMORANDUM


           DATE:                 October 25,               1988                        *

           TO:                   L.R.       Davis                          §§\§v\f/

           FROM :               vincent Pellegrisx;fl

           SUBJECT:;:            PVI      Test Results

           w h ol ohe h ce n t ce w o e e w h e e e o id o e ie ie e ie se e h h che h ht hoh o h ohe h h ob t h hoh t d che t h hoh e h h h ie


                      On August 2,                1988,
                                        the E@uipment Maintenance Department
                     was asked to determine the effects of a Platinum    Vapor
                     Injector (PVI)  on  exhaust   smoke  opacity.   The   PVI
                     system was supplied by   Technologies Limited (T.L.}   of
                     Albuquerque, New Mexico.


                     The test results indicate that the PVI has no effect. on
                     bus engine exhaust smoke opacity.


                     On August 2, 1988, a meeting was held at the District‘s
                     Central Maintenance Facility and included the following

                                        Don Waite                                      Vincent Pellegrin
                                        Mike Leahy                                     Gregq Davy
                                        Rick Jager                                     David Lane
                                        Frank Kirshner                                 Mike Bottone
                                        Michael Singer                                 Jim Smart

                                                     —~Technologies LTD—
                                        Fo Farland                  Michael Lebeck
                                        J.W.       Haskens          Dr. Dale Schialey

                                        —California Air Resources Board—
                                         Jerry Wendt         Robert Kou

                                                                             — 14

                                                        APPENDIX E (CONTINUED)

L.R.   Davis                           —2—                     October    25,    1988

       The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the operating
       principles   and  installation    requirements   for    the
       Platinum   Vapor Injector   (PVI)   on  District     buses.
       Technologies Ltd.‘s  representatives stated    that    they
       expect   a   50—90%   reduction       in    smoke      opacity    with     the
       installation of the PVI on the Detroit Diesel 6Vv92  TAC
       engine, which powers the majority of the District‘s bus

       Mr.   Farland,   Chairman of      the Board of T.L.,               requested
       that the District       supply two         (2)   buses on which           T.L.
       would install  the PVI   system for   test purposes.   BHe
       further requested that these buses exhibit higher    than
       normal smoke opacity   levels.  Based   on this  request,
       the following test plan was outlined and agreed upon by
       T.L. and District personnel.

       1.    District staff will select two (2) buses that
             have higher than normal smoke levels.

       2.    District personnel will then perform a loaded mode
             smoke opacity  test  in  order  to  determine  the
             baseline smoke opacity levels of the buses.

       3.    T.L.‘s   representatives will  then  install    and
             calibrate the PVI system on the baseline buses.

       4.    District  personnel  will  then  retest  the                         PVI
             equipped buses to determine PVI‘s effect on                        smoke
             opacity levels.


       The initial smoke test plan called for two buses to  be
       tested on the chassis   dynamometer at  Division  3303.
       These buses,     8877 and   7661, were   selected for                    their
       higher  then     normal   smoke  opacity   levels  and                    were
       baseline tested       in an    "as    is" condition,          no     engine
       tune—ups were   performed.           Baseline testing            began      on
       August 1, 1988.

       Following the baseline smoke          test on bus        8877 and        7661,
       T.L.‘s representatives        installed          the    PVI   system        on
       these buses; smoke opacity tests were then performed in
       the PVI  equipped  condition.   Following  these  tests
       T.L.‘s representatives requested that the buses be

                                              — 15 —

                                                             APPENDIX E (CONTINUED)

L.R.   Davis                              —3—                  October    25,       1988

       placed in revenue  service               to  accumulate mileage   with
       the PVI system  operating.                At this  time, they   stated
       that the PVI system would need to operate 2500 imiles in
       order to exhibit        reductions in              smoke opacity    levels.
       The District agreed           to T.L.‘s request          and placed           the
       the  buses  in  normal  service.   After   the   mileage
       accumulation, the buses  were tested again   in the  PVI
       equipped condition  on August  26  and 31,   1988.  (See
       attached test results.)

       On  August  4,  1988,  T.L.  requested  that   two   (2)
       additional buses be tested  for baseline smoke   opacity
       levels then PVI equipped by                T.L.    and placed in     normal
       revenue service        to     accumulate milage.           The     District
       also agreed to      this request and               bus numbers 7669           and
       7658 received baseline smoke opacity test on August  5,
       1988.  These buses were  equipped with the PVI  systems
       by  T.L.   and  placed  in   normal  revenue   service.
       On   September    14        and   15,.     1988,     following      mileage
       accumulation,    the buses were tested               in the PVI    equipped
       condition.                                                               '


       The smoke  test  procedure  used   is   similar  to  that
       outlined  in  SAE,  J—35,  "Diesel    Smoke   Measurement
       Procedure," with the addition  of a stall torque    mode.
       The tests are run with the bus positioned on a    chassis

       The smoke test procedure             employed consists of           running
       three   consecutive    smoke    cycles.       Throttle    position
       during the   cycle    is   either      fully   closed    or   fully
       opened.     Following      the    instrumentation           set—up,
       smokemeter calibration, and a          10 minute maximum      power
       warm—up, the   first smoke      cycle is      begun.    The   first
       cycle starts with     a 20   second idle       period; then      the
       transmission is    then put     into drive      and the     bus   is
       accelerated     (1st   acceleration}       at     approximately    1
       mile—per—hour,    per    second,    {(1.  mph/sec)     while     the
       transmission is    allowed     to up—shift      into    high    gear
       bringing the   engine     to   rated speed       (2100   rpm)    and

       The maximum  power mode  is held   for approximately  20
       seconds.  With the throttle still held fully open,   the
       engine is loaded down such that the rpm drops gradually
       to. intermediate  speed   (lug down).    The  engine  is
       brought back to  idle, the service   brakes are  applied
       and the engine is accelerated (2nd acceleration} to

                                                — 16 ~

                                                                       APPENDIX E (CONTINUED)

,L.R.   Davis                                    ~4A~                   October       25,    1988

        converter stall  torque for   approximately 10  seconds.
        At this point, the engine   is returned to idle and  the
        smoke    cycle       is   complete.             Three   smoke       . test       sequence
        cycles must  be run            back—to—back  before the  test  is
        considered complete.            Results from the smoke tests  are
        given in terms            of smoke opacity              and are divided              into
        five factors:

        "A"      factor represents acceleration                      smoke.

        "B"      factor represents          lug down smoke              (hill     climb).

        "C"_    factor represents peak smoke (puffs during early
                portions of rapid opening of the throttle}.

        "D"      factor represents          the    full       load,    rated      speed     smoke
                characteristics of              the engine.

        "E"      factor represents the full load intermediate speed
                smoke characteristics of the engine.

        The smoke        test chart         results are           validated and              read
        according  to   a procedure   adapted  from  SAE   J—35.
.       Essentially, the acceleration and lug portions of    each
{       cycle are  divided into   1. second intervals.   The   10
        highest   smoke   opacity    readings   from   the   two
        accelerations of each cycle are recorded.  The  average
        of these 30 smoke opacity readings yield the "A" factor
        or acceleration smoke factor.    Simillarly, the five   ©(5)
        highest readings  from the   lug  down portion    of  each
        cycle are determined.   The average of     these 15   smoke
        opacity readings yield                  the "B" factor              or lug       factor.
        The    "C"   factor   or    peak        smoke    factor,       is    determined        by
        taking the two highest of  the 10 values selected  from
        the acceleration portions of  each cycle.  The  average
        of these       six    smoke        opacity readings                 yield     the     "C"
        factor.  The   "D" and  "E"  factors are  determined  by
        locating the last 10 seconds   of the maximum power   and
        lug down modes.   The average smoke readings during this
        period yield the            "D" factor or             full     load rated           speed
        smoke and      "E"    factor or full              load    intermediate              speed
        smoke respectfully.                Of    these five            factors,       the     "B"
        factor or lug down and  the "E" factor or  intermediate
        speed are perhaps the  most repeatable followed by  the
    — acceleration or              "A" factor           and     the full          load      rated
        speed or  "D"   factor.  The                     peak     or        "C"     factor     is
        substantially more variable.                                                 '

        Smoke was  determined by  the end—of—stack  type   Wager
        Model P—6P smokemeter which monitored the opacity of

                                                    — 179 _

                                                         APPENDIX E (CONTINUED)

. L.R.        Davis                           —5—                   October 25,      1988

           the raw  exhaust   plume  as it   issued  from   a  6—inch
           diameter  exhaust   pipe.    This   type  of    smokemeter
           measures the percent of   light extinction by the     total
           exhaust plume  from   the engine.    The   smokemeter   was
          connected to a    compatible strip—chart to   continuously
          record the smoke opacity during each cycle.      This meter
          has an accuracy of>   + 1 digit and   zero stability of    1
            percent.     Such   instrumentation       must     be   used    since        the,
            human eye detects      smoke opacity only near or above 4—5%
            level.                                           .

            Engine     performance      and     operating       conditions           were
           recorded during each test and they included:

                   Road horsepower
         0 0 0 o

                   Charge air pressure
                   Air inlet restriction
                   Engine rev/min.

           The results    of this    data indicates          that road horsepower
          levels were relatively consistent (within 5 percent  of
          baseline) and engine operating conditions were repeated
          from test to test.  Air inlet restriction was kept well
          below engine manufacturers‘ recommended limits and were
          relatively consistent from test to test.

          Modal engine RPM was held to + 50 rpm variance    between
          tests.   Acceleration  and   deceleration  —rates    were
          controlled as consistently as possible with the    manual
          dynamometer controls.


          The attached  tables present   the results   for all  the
          smoke tests performed on the   buses in this test.    All
          the  results,  whether    slight  increases   or   slight
          decreases in  smoke  levels compared   to   baseline  are
          within    experimental      test     variability      and
          instrumentation accuracy.   Thus, the PVI system has   no
          measurable effect on exhaust smoke opacity.

          Bus 8877 received a California Highway Patrol      citation
          for excessive   smoke  (CVC—27153)  while   operating    in
          revenue service with the   PVI system.   (See    attachment
          I.)  Bus 7661 was smoke tested after the removal of the
          PVI  system   and  the  engine  was  tuned    to    factory
           specifications.        The     "post     tune—up"         test       showed     a
’          significant reduction in           smoke opacity.                c

                                                    — 1g =—

                                                           APPENDIX E (CONTINUED)

, R.   Davis         '                    —6—                   October   25,   1988

 The   California        Air      Resourses     Board     has     supplied      the
 following statement:

       The California  Air Resources  Board (CARB)  staff
       has reviewed the Smoke Test Procedures used by the
       SCRTD and     has found        them to     be among       the    best
       currently in use.           The CARB staff belives that the
       SCRTD test procedures           are more     than adequate         to
       assess the impact of the           PVI device on the            smoke
       emissions from the transit  buses under test.   In
       addition the CARB staff observed much of the SCRTD
       testing  and  found   that  the   District‘s  test
       procedures were ridgedly applied.

co:    Jerry Wendt       (CARB)

                                                 — 19 —


                                                                                                         AFPPENDIX E (CONTINUED)

                                                              BUS NO.            8877


                                                                                         "D"                            Full~Load                      Miles
                "A"                   "B"                     "¢"                     Full~Load                        Intermediate                  |Accumulate
3ast        Accel    (%)         Lug        (%)        Peak        (%)         Rated Speed                  (%)           Speed          (%)           On    PVI

ase—          14.5                    6.3                  21.7                           2.3                                    5.7                         ~—
ine                                                                                                                                                     ,

vI     #1    17 .4                    7.7                  25.3                           1.9                                    7.7                         ——

vVI   #2     19 .2                    8 .0                 28 .2                          2.3                                    7.6                        3,337

                                                                                 — 20 .

   +                                                      APPENDIX E (CONTINUED)

                                 BUS NRO.    7661


                                                   "p"             Full~Load         Miles
            "A"       "B"         "g"           Full—Load         Intermediate     |Accumulate
est     Accel (%)   Lug (%)   [Peak (%)     |Rated Speed (%)       Speed (%) .       On PVI

lase—      26.8       1.0       47 .7               1.7               1.0               ——

VI #1      28 .8      1.5       48 .7               1.7               1.2               ——

VI #2     26 .9       1. 0      47.3                1.7               1.0             —3,8 40

‘UNE—      6.9        1.0        8 .7               1.0               1.0               ——

                                              — 21 _


            *                                                                                                  APPENDIX E (CONTINUED)

                                                                           BUS NO.              7658
                                                                                                         "D"            Full—Load         Miles
                       "A"                       "B"                       "¢"                    Full—Load             Intermediate    |Accumulate
lest            Accel        (%)           Lug         (%)         |Peak         (%)           |Rated Speed       (%)   Speed     (%)     On PVI

Jase—             10 .7                          1.0                    21.6                             1.0                1.0              ——~

>VI    #1         10 .8                          1.0                    20 .8                            1.0                1.0             4,023

                                                                                               «_ 22 —

                                                             APPENDIX E (CONTINUED)

                                     BUS NO.    7669
                                                      "p"            FPull—Load         Miles
                "A"       "B"         *¢"          Full—Load        Intermediate      |Accumulat«
 test       Accel (%)   Lug (%)   |Peak (%)    |Rated Speed [(%)     Speed (%)          On PVI

 lase—        7.0         1.0       9 .8               1.0               1.0            o     ——

L OvI #1]     6.6         1.0       8 .7               1.0               1.0   >            4,925

                                                 — 23 —

Document Created: 2005-09-01 12:40:01
Document Modified: 2005-09-01 12:40:01

| Previous E.O. D-188 | Next E.O. D-189-1 | Next E.O. D-190