Approval Details

Valid E.O.

Validity

This Executive Order approved the specified parts on on November 16, 1984.
As of Monday, December 10th, 2018 this Executive Order has not been overturned or superceeded.

Approved Parts

Models
1985 and older GMC or AMC light-duty trucks powered by a GMC 2.8 liter gasoline fueled engine.

This Executive Order may be listed as:
  • C.A.R.B.E.O. D-150
  • Executive Order 150 / D150
  • ARB # D-150
  • Executive Order No: D-150
  • C.A.R.B. No. D-150
  • Resolution D-150
For Free CARB Executive Order Status verification, email an image of the device Executive Order label as well as the Year/Make/Model and Test Group # of the vehicle to [email protected]

Download: Executive Order D-150 PDF

D-150 Document:



                                                      (Page 1 of 2)

                            State of California
                            AIR RESOURCES BOARD

                           EXECUTIVE ORDER D—150
                Relating to Exemptions under Section 27156
                            of the Vehicle Code


                           K.F. INDUSTRIES, INC.
                          MAX—25 SUPERCHARGER KIT


Pursuant to the authority vested in the Air Resources Board by Section
27156 of the Vehicle Code; and

Pursuant to the authority vested in the undersigned by Sections 39515 and
39516 of the Health and Safety Code and Executive Order G—45—5;

IT IS ORDERED AND RESOLYED: That the installation of the MAX—25
supercharger kit manufactured by K.F. Industries, Inc. has been found not
to reduce the effectiveness of required motor vehicle pollution control
devices and, therefore, is exempt from the prohibitions of Section 27156 of
the Vehicle Code for all 1985 and older GMC or AMC light—duty trucks
powered by a GMC 2.8 liter Y—6 gasoline fueled engine.

This Executive Order is valid provided that installation instructions for
this device will not recommend tuning the vehicle to specifications
different from those submitted by the device manufacturer.

Changes made to the design or operating conditions of the device, as
exempted by the Air Resources Board, that adversely affect the performance
of a vehicle‘s pollution control system shall invalidate this Executive
Order.

Marketing of this device using an identification other than that shown in
this Executive Order or marketing of this device for an application other
than those listed in this Executive Order shall be prohibited unless prior
approval is obtained from the Air Resources Board. Exemption of a kit
shall not be construed as an exemption to sell, offer for sale, or
advertise any component of a kit as an individual device.

This Executive Order does not constitute any opinion as to the effect that
the use of this device may have on any warranty either expressed or implied
by the vehicle manufacturer.

THIS EXECUTIVE ORDER DOES NOT CONSTITUTE A CERTIFICATION, ACCREDITATION,
APPROVAL, OR ANY OTHER TYPE OF ENDORSEMENT BY THE AIR RESOURCES BOARD OF
ANY CLAIMS OF THE APPLICANT CONCERNING ANTI—POLLUTION BENEFITS OR ANY
ALLEGED BENEFITS OF THE MAX—25 SUPERCHARGER KIT.


K.F. INDUSTRIES, INC
MAX—25 Supercharger Kit                             EXECUTIVE ORDER D—150
                                                    (Page 2 of 2)




No claim of any kind, such as "Approved by Air Resources Board" may be made
with respect to the action taken herein in any advertising or other oral or
written communication.

Section 17500 of the Business and Professions Code makes untrue or
misleading advertising unlawful, and Section 17534 makes violation
punishable as a misdemeanor.

Section 43644 of the Health and Safety Code provides as follows:

    "43644.   (a)}   No person shall install, sell, offer for sale, or
    advertise, or, except in an application to the state board for
    certification of a device, represent, any device as a motor vehicle
    polliution control device for use on any used motor vehicle unless that
    device has been certified by the state board. No person shall sell,
    offer for sale, advertise, or represent any motor vehicle pollution
    control device as a certified device which, in fact, is not a certified
    device.   Any violation of this subdivision is a misdemeanor."

Any apparent violation of the conditions of this Executive Order will be
submitted to the Attorney General of California for such action as he deems
advisable.


Executed at El Monte, California, this     /6     day of November, 1984.



                                         Ailiec®
                                         K. D. Drachand, Chief
                                         Mobile Source Division


                                  CONTENTS



                                             Page Number




SUMMARY

CONTENTS                                         11
I.     INTRODUCTION

II.    CONCLUSION

III.      RECOMMENDATIONS

IV.    SUPERCHARGER K;T DESCRIPT ION

           AND OPERATION

       SUPERCHARGER KIT EVALUATION

       D1SCUSSION




                                       i1


                                    SUMMARY



K. F. Industries, Inc. has requested an exemption from the prohibitions

in Vehicle Code Section 27156 for their MAX—25 supercharger kit for

installation on 1985 and older model—year GMC or AMC lTight—duty trucks

powered by a GMC 2.8 liter V—§6 gasoline engine.

       Based on the results from comparative exhaust emission tests

performed by K. F. Industries, Inc. at an independent laboratory on a

1984 GMC S—15 pick—up truck, and from the confirmatory tests performed by

the ARB, the staff concludes that K. F. Industries, Inc.‘s MAX—25

supercharger kit will not adversely affect exhaust emission from vehicles

for which exemption is requested.

       The staff recommends that K. F. Industries, Inc. be granted an

exe´Čüption as requested and that Executive Order D—150 be issued.


                   State of California
                   AIR RESOURCES BOARD




EVALUATION OF K. F. INDUSTRIES, INC.‘s MAX—25 SUPERCHARGER
        KIT FOR EXEMPTION FROM THE PROHIBITIONS IN
         VEHICLE CODE SECTION 27156 IN ACCORDANCE
            WITH SECTION 2222, TITLE 13, OF THE
              CALIFORNIA ADMINISTRATIVE CODE




                      October 1984


                                           Date of Issue:    October 1984



EVALUATION OF K. F. INDUSTRIES, INC.‘S MAX—25 SUPERCHARGER KIT FOR
EXEMPTION FROM THE PROHIBITIONS IN VEHICLE CODE SECTION 27156 IN
ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 2222, TITLE 13, OF THE CALIFORNIA ADMINISTRATIVE
CODE




                                    by
                         Mobile Source Division

                           State of California
                           AIR RESOURCES BOARD
                           9528 Telstar Avenue
                           El1 Monte, CA    91731




(This report has been reviewed by the staff of the California Air
Resources Board and approved for publication.       Approval does not signify
that the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Air
Resources Board, nor does mention of trade names or commercial products
constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.)


EVALUATION OF K. F. INDUSTRIES, INC.‘S MAX—25 SUPERCHARGER KIT FOR
EXEMPTION FROM THE PROHIBITIONS IN VEHICLE CODE SECTION 27156 IN
égggRDANCE WITH SECTION 2222, TITLE 13, OF THE CALIFORNIA ADMINISTRATIVE



I.     INTRODUC T ION

       K. F. Industries, Inc., of Sun Valley, California 91353, has

requested an exemption from the prohibitions in Vehicle Code Section

27156 for their MAX—25 supercharger kit.    The supercharger kit is

intended for installation on 1985 and older model—year GMC or AMC

light—duty trucks powered with a GMC 2.8 liter V—6 gasoline fueled engine.

       K. F. Industries, Inc. has submitted data from comparative (stock

baseline vs supercharged) emission tests conducted on a 1984 GMC S—15

pick—up truck at Fairway Environmental Engineering, Inc., Torrance,

California.    Confirmatory tests were conducted on the same vehicle at the

Air Resources Board (ARB) laboratory in El Monte, California.

II.    CONCLUSION

       Based on the results from comparative exhaust emission tests

performed by K. F. Industries, Inc. at an independent laboratory on a

1984 GMC S—15, and from the confirmatory tests performed by the ARB on

the same vehicle, the staff concludes that K. F. Industries, Inc.‘s

supercharger kit will not adversely affect exhaust emission from vehicles

for which exemption is requested.

III.   RECOMMENDATIONS

       The staff recommends that K. F. Industries, Inc. be granted an

exemption for their add—on MAX—25 supercharger kit for installation on

1985 and older model—year GMC or AMC light—duty trucks powered by a GMC

2.8 liter V—6 gasoline fueled engine.   The staff also recommends that

Executive Order D—150 be issued.


IV.      SUPERCHARGER KIT DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

         During the suction stroke of a 4—cycle gasoline engine the air—fuel

mixture, air through-the air cleaner and fuel from the carburetor bow1!, enters

the engine cylinders through intake valves.

         The admittance into the cylinder of an aircharge more than what the

cylinder would obtain as a result of the regular suction stroke {natural

aspiration} is called supercharging.     The increase of the air charge is

obtained by increasing the inlet pressure of the air.       Sometimes supercharging

is called boosting.

         The main object of supercharging is to permit the burning of a larger

amount of fuel to increase the power output of the engine.

         The increased air pressure is obtained by using blowers, either of the

positive—displacement type, such as Roots blowers, or vane blowers, or of the

centrifugal type.l Reciprocating—piston blowers are seldom used because they

are bulkier, more expensive and less dependable than blowers of the rotary

types.
         Roots blowers are used with two or three lobes, with cylindrical or

helical surfaces.     The three lobes and the helical surfaces are used to obtain
a more uniform nonpulsating flow of air.       The blowers are usually driven by

the engine itself by means of spur, helical, or herringbone gears, silent

chains, or V—belts at a speed of two to three times that of the engine.

Sometimes the blower is driven by an electric motor.

         The power inérease through supercharging is about 1.3 times greater than

the increase of the volumetric efficiency.      The increase of friction losses

with a supercharger driven by the engine itself is considerably smaller than

the power gained through supercharging.    As a result, the mechanical

efficiency, referred to the maximum load, increases with supercharging.


                                       ~-2_'


      The higher the supercharger, or booster, pressure is raised, the

more air will be forced into the cylinder and the greater will be the

power—output increase.   At the same time a greater supercharger pressure

absorbs more power to produce it.     The polytropic compression of air has

an exponent of 2 for Roots blowers.

      K. F. Industries, Inc. is using a three lobe cylindrical Roots

blower, belt driven with a speed of 1.7 times the speed of the engine.

      At reduced speeds, down to 50 percent or less, the engine torque

can be maintained constant without an excessive temperature increase.      An

increase of the mean effective pressure by 30 to 50 percent is

obtainable.   The power to drive the booster pump increases rapidly with

an increase of compression ratio; and with a high booster pressure at

high engine rpm, the power to drive the supercharger may absorb all the

gain received by the engine.   This condition limits the MAX—25 béost

pressure to 5 psig at 5000 engine rpm.

      The MAX—25 supercharger kit has been specifically designed for

installation on the GMC made 2.8 lTiter, V—6 gasoline fueled engine.     This

kit operates in conjunction with the emission control systems already

certified with the stock engine.    All the necessary hardwares and

supplies are included in the kit.     A complete manual describing the

parts, and step—by—step installation procedure is supplied with the kit.

None of the original OEM parts are removed or discarded as per

installation procedure of this kit.    Adapters are supplied; hood and air

cleaner housing modification instructions are clearly spelled out in the

instruction manual.


      Lubrication and cooling of the supercharger is provided by a 24—in. long

high pressure hose with a swivel fitting teed to the oil pressure switch

connection.   The other end of this hose is connected to the supercharger

bearing house.   On the opposite side, end bearing of the supercharger, the

return oil hose is connected on one end; the other end to the rocker cover

fitting.

      The maximum positive pressure boost of 5 psig at 5000 engine RPM is

limited by an ACM—30 computer that functions to retard the distributor spark

curve above the normal driving range.   This electronic computer module is also

employed to suppress detonation during boost conditions or heavy operations.

It utilizes a sensor, mounted on the intake manifold or cylinder head, to

detect detonation (pinging).   When detonation is detected, the module

electronically retards the spark until detonation is eliminated.

      The kit also utilizes the OEM fuel enrichment system.   The system

connects to the intake manifold and coolant temperature sensor.    When boost

pressure reaches 4 psig, the system increases the electrical resistance of the

temperature sensors.   This increase in electrical resistance dictates the

vehicle‘s computer to increase the fuel flow through the injector nozzles,

thus enriching the fuel charge during the boost conditions above 4 psig.

V.    SUPERCHARGER KIT EVALUATION

      A 1984 GMC S—15, light—duty pick—up truck with a 2.8 liter, V—6

throttle—body gasoline fuel injected engine was used for the evaluation of the

supercharger kit.   The dynamometer inertia weight and loading used were

3500—1bs and 12.0—hp, respectively.


         Comparative emissions tests conducted by Fairway Environmental

Engineering, Inc. for K. F. Industries, Inc. and by the ARB, consisted of

cold—start CVS—75 and hot—start Highw;y Fuel Economy fests.       These tests were

used to determine exhaust emissions in the unmodified (baseline) and

supercharged {device installed) configurations for comparison.       A summary of

the test results is shown below:



                             Exhaust Emissions Test Results
                            On A 1984 GMC S—15 Pick—Up Truck


         A.     Applicants Test Results

Test               Exhaust Emissions (gm/mi)              Fuel Economy {mpg)
Mode              HG         CO           NOx             City             Hwy .
Baseline           0.20      3.80         0.50           17.15            27.05
Device             0.19      3.20         0.56           1840             29.61


       B.     ARB‘s Confirmatory Test Results After Device Modification

Baseline          0. 41     6.80          0.54           16.5             26.45
Device            0.24      5.16          0.55           14.0             21.97


California Standards:       HC = 0.39; CO = 9.00; NOy = 1.00
                            {all in grams per mile}).


vI.   DISCUSSION

      The test data submitted by the applicant showed an increase in NOx

when the supercharger was installed according to K. F. Industries, Inc.‘s

instructions.    The applicant modified their ACM—30 computer. to lower the

NOx emissions.     ARB confirmatory emission test results after the

modification show that the installation of a supercharger kit did not

have an adverse effect on exhaust emissions on the test vehicle.

      The original application requested an exemption for 1984 and older

model—year vehicles only.     Upon completion of the evaluation tests, the

1985 mode! vehicles were being introduced in California.     K. F.

 Industries, Inc., has requested, in writing, that their application be

updated to include the 1985 models as well, since the engines used in the

1985 models are identically designed as the ones in 1984 models.

      in response to the applicant‘s request, the staff reviewed the

certification documents and compared the engine design of both 1985 and

1984 model—year GMC S—15, 2.8 liter, ¥—6, gasoline fuel injected

engines.    Since the engines in the 1985 models are identically designed

as the 1984 engines, the staff is of the opinion that the 1985 vehicles

will have the same degree of performance/emissions fmpact as in the 1984

models,    Because the test data on a 1984 test vehicle did not show

adverse effects on the vehicle exhaust emissions with the supercharger

kit installed, the kit will not adversely affect the emissions on the

1985 models either.    No additional testing was required or performed to

incorporate K. F. Industries, Inc.‘s request to include the 1985 models

in their application for exemption.



Document Created: 2005-09-01 12:40:38
Document Modified: 2005-09-01 12:40:38

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