Approval Details

Valid E.O.


This Executive Order approved the specified parts on on October 20, 1977.
As of Wednesday, October 16th, 2019 this Executive Order has not been overturned or superceeded.

Approved Parts

1970-1973 Datsun 240z automatic, 1974 Datsun 260Z automatic

This Executive Order may be listed as:
  • C.A.R.B.E.O. D-76
  • Executive Order 76 / D76
  • ARB # D-76
  • Executive Order No: D-76
  • C.A.R.B. No. D-76
  • Resolution D-76
For Free CARB Executive Order Status verification, email an image of the device Executive Order label as well as the Year/Make/Model and Test Group # of the vehicle to [email protected]

Download: Executive Order D-76 PDF

D-76 Document:

                                                         (Page 1 of 2)

                             State of California
                             AIR RESOURCES BOARD

                           EXECUTIVE ORDER D—76
               Relating to Exemptions under Section 27156
                           of the Vehicle Code

                        NORDSKOG INDUSTRIES, INC.

Pursuant to the authority vested in the Air Resources Board by Section
27156 of the Vehicle Code; and

Pursuant to the authority vested in the undersigned by Section 39515 of
the Health and Safety Code and Executive Order G—304;

IT IS ORDERED AND RESOLVED: That the installation of the "Nordskog
Industries Datsun Engine Conversion Kit" manufactured by Nordskog Industries,
Inc., 165000 Strathern Street, Van Nuys, CA    91406, has been found to not
reduce the effectiveness of required motor vehicle pollution control devices
and, therefore, is exempt from the prohibitions of Section 27156 of the
Vehicle Code for the following applications:

     (1)   Engine conversions of 1970 through 1973 Datsun 2402 using
           the same or newer 1970 through 1974 Chevrolet 350 CID engine,
           with automatic transmission, and the required vehicle emission
           control system.

     (2) Engine conversions of 1974 Datsun 2607 using 1974 Chevrolet
           350 CID engine, with automatic transmission, and the required
           vehicle emission control system.

This Executive Order does not constitute any condonation or approval of the
safety of such modified vehicles when operated on the highway.

Changes made to the design or operating conditions of the device, as
exempted by the Air Resources Board, that adversely affect the performance
of a vehicle‘s pollution control system shall invalidate this Executive
Order.                            ;

Marketing of this device using an identification other than that shown
in this Executive Order or marketing of this device for an application
other than those listed in this Eflecutive Order.shall be prohibited ‘unless
prior approval is obtained from tde Air Resources Board.

This Executive Order does not conskitute any dpinion as to the effect
that the use of this device may have on any warranty either expressed or
implied by the vehicle manufacturer.

                                                 (Page 2 of 2)


No claim of any kind, such as "Approved by Air Resources Board" may be made
with respect to—the action taken herein in any advertising or other oral
or written communication.

Section 17500 of the Bus{ness and Professions Code makes untrue or mis—
leading advertising unlawful, and Section 17534 makes violation punishable
as a misdemeanor.

Section 43644 of the Health and Safety Code provides as follows:

     "43644. (a) No person shall install, sell, offer for sale, or
     advertise, or, except in an application to the state board for
     certification of a device, represent, any device as a motor vehicle
     pollution control device for use on any used motor vehicle unless
     that device has been certified by the state board. No person shall
     sell, offer for sale, advertise, or represent any motor vehicle
     pollution control device as a certified device which, in fact, is
     not a certified device.   Any violation of this subdivision is a
     misdemeanor."                                              ‘
Any apparent violation of the conditions of this Executive Order will be
submitted to the Attorney General of California for such action as he
deems advisable.

Executed at Sacramento, California, this éflé? day of October, 1977.

                                    Peputy Executive Officer

                           State of CaTifornia
                           AIR RESOURCES BOARD

                            September 10, 1977

                                Staff Report

                 Evaluation of Nordskog Industries, Inc.
         "Nordskog Industries Datsun Engine Conversion Kit" for
               Compliance with the Requirements of Section
                  27156 of the California Vehicle Code


      Nordskog Industries, Inc., 16000 Strathern Street, Van Nuys,

      California 91406, has applied for an exemption for its Datsun

      Engine Conversion Kit from the prohibitions of Section 27156 of the

      California Vehicle Code (Exhibit A).     Section 27156 prohibits the

      advertisement, sale and installation of any device or mechanism

      which reduces the effectiveness of the required motor vehicle emission

      control system.

      The kit is specifically designed for the engine conversion of Datsun 240Z

      and 2607 series vehicles from 1970 through 1974 model years.     The Datsun

      engine is replaced with the same year or newer Chevrolet 350 CID engine

      with all required emission control equipment and the original Chevrolet

      automatic transmission.   The replacement engine for California certified

      Datsun "Z" cars must be of CaTifornia configuration.

II.   System Description

      The Nordskog Industries Datsun Engine Conversion Kit provides the

      components and instructions on how to replace the Datsun engine

      with the equivalent used Chevrolet 350 CID engine.     It consists of 22

      separate sub—kits and installation instructions (Exhibit B).

    The sub—kits consist of a special Tow profile air cleaner, engine

     cooling system; header system, power train mounts, fuel system,

     electrical system and other accessories as itemized in Page 15 of

     the attached installation instructions.   Additional parts have to

     be procured by the customer to complete the engine replacement.      These

     include the applicable Chevrolet 350 CID engine along with the

    matching automatic transmission, water pump, starter, alternator,

     evaporative emission control system, drive shaft, and supplemental

     parts itemized in page 3—5 of the attached installation instructions.

    A tune—up label is also supplied with the kit to be affixed to the

     converted vehicle.

    The installation instructions provides guidance on how to procure

     the replacement Chevrolet 350—CID   engine and other supplemental parts

    needed, tools and equipment check Tist, pre—installation service pro—

    cedures, power train removal and replacement, installations of the

    components supplied by the manufacturer, road test and diagnostic

    test procedures.

III. System Evaluation

    The proposed engine conversion kit requires the removal of the

    engine and the emission control systems from a certified Datsun

    vehicie and replacement with an equivalent Chevrolet 350 CID engine

    with its indigenous emission control systems.    The purpose of this

    evaluation is to determine if the engine conversion will result in

    an increase in emissions of the modified vehicle compared with the

    unmodified vehicle originally certified to meet emission standards

    for that model year.

      A.   Technical Background

           The replacement Chevrolet 350 CID engine is designed and certified

           for vehicles with 4,500 to 5,500 Tbs gross vehicle weight (GVW)

           rating.      When the engine is installed on a Datsun "Z" car chassis,
           the GVW of the vehicles will not exceed 3500 lbs.        Since the GVW

           of the converted vehicle is Tighter the road Toad horsepower1

            requirement of the Chevrolet 350 CID engine will be less in

           a Datsun chassis than in a Chevrolet chassis.

           The ARB conducted a test program to determine the emission effects2

            of varying the inertia weight and horsepower Toading.       Emission

            tests were conducted on a 1974 Chevrolet 350 CID vehicle using

            the CVS—72 test procedures.       The study concluded that HC, CO

            and NOx emissions vary in the same direction as the change in

            chassis dynamometer inertia weight setting and horsepower Toading

            of the vehicle.

1                                         2
    Road Load Horsepower = V (CrW+CaAV~+0.01GW)/375

       Where Cr   =   Coefficient of rolling resistance.
             Ca   —   Coefficient of air resistance
              V   =   Vehicle speed, mph              9
              A   =   Frontai area of the vehicle, ft
              W   =   Gross vehicle weight, Tbs
              G   =   road grade, per cent

2 Effects on Exhaust Emissions of Varying Horsepower Loading and Inertia
  Weight on a 1974 Chevrolet, 350—4V ARB Report R77O2, September 1977.

          Studies conducted by others3 showed that at constant speed

          decreasing the horsepower output decreases NOx and CO emissions,

          whereas, the HC remains relatively constant.     The decrease in

          NOx production can be attributed to a decrease in maximum cycle

          temperature as a result of reduction in engine load.     The reduction

          of fue?} consumption also reduces CO mass emissions.    The influence

          of load on HC emissions is quite complex.     A factor tending to

          decrease HC emission as Toad is decreased is increased residence

          time within the exhaust system; factors tending to increase HC

          emission include increased quench thickness and decreased exhaust

          temperature as Toad is decreased.     Apparently the opposing factors

          on HC emission offset each other causing no change in HC emission

          as Toad is decreased at constant speed.

     B.   Test Evaluation

          The above technical discussions indicate that the replacement by

          a larger displacement engine would not result in an increase of
          vehicle emissions.     However, the proposed engine conversion kit

          requires the modifications of various other vehicle components such

          as exhaust, cooling, fuel system, etc. to allow for the exchange

          of engines.     In addition, problems may be encountered in actual

          practice that may affect vehicle emissions which need to be

          investigated.     Therefore a test program was conducted at the ARB

          Laboratory to evaluate the actual engine conversion utilizing the

          proposed kit.

3D. F. Hagen and G. W. Holiday,    The Effect of Engine Operating and Design
 Variables on Exhaust Emission,    SAE No. 486C, 1962

Edward F. Obert, Internal Combustion Engines and Air Pollution, Intext
Educational Publishers, New York, 3rd Edition, 1973.

Test Program

The testing was conducted in cooperation with the applicant

who supplied the two Datsun vehicles and performed the re—

quired conversion using the Nordskog conversion kit.     The

following were the test vehicles confirgurations:

a.   1973 Datsun 2407 with afitomatic transmission

     and modified with a 1973 Chevrolet 350—4V, A.T.

     (From a Caprice)

     1974 Datsun 260Z with manual transmission

     and modified with a 1974 Chevrolet 350—4V¥, A. T.

     (From a 1/2 ton truck)
     The vehicles were given normal pre—conditioning and set to

     appropriate engine specifications.     In addition, a compression

     check was made on each vehicle to determine the condition of

     the engines, and the calibration curve of the distributors

     were verified.     The following emission tests were performed

     on the above vehicles (in the original configuration and

     the converted configuration):

     a.   Cold Start CVS—75

     b.   Two Hot Start CVS—72

     c.   CVS Loaded Mode Tests

     d.   CYS Steady State at 30, 40 50 mph with chassis

          dyno set at 3X road Toad horsepower

     e.   EPA Highway Cycle Test

     f.    Evaporative Emission. (Shed) Test

Problem Areas

During the test evaluation several problems were identified

and corrected when possible, as discussed beljow:

a.   When the modified Datsun 240Z was deTivered for testing,

     inspection of the vehicle indicated some installation

     deficiencies.     The exhaust manifold flange was Teaking,

     the steering bar was scrapping against the header pipe

     causing a steering problem, the transmission would not

     downshift in some instances, and bolts holding the

     driveshaft bracket were foose.     These problems were lfater

     corrected.     A lTeaking exhaust flange was detected on the

     converted Datsun 260Z which was also corrected prior to


     Initial emission tests on the modified Datsun 2407 showed

     about a tenfold increase in CO compared to the unmodified

     vehicle.     A failure mode analysis traced the problem to

     a carburetor malfunction.     In addition, the carburetor was

     found to be intended for a truck engine application only.

     The defective carburetor was replaced with a service

     carburetor specified for the 1973 Chevrolet 350 CID engine

     and the emission tests were repeated.

     The Chevrolet engine with an automatic transmission installed

     in the Datsun 2407 was certified with a manual transmission.

     The illegal switch of transmissions was probably per—

     formed by the previous owners and would not typically

     represent the engine configurations available for replacement.

         d.   The Chevrolet 350 CID installed in the Datsun 260Z was

              completely rebuilt.     This type of replacement configuration

              would be preferable but would not necessarily occur in


         e.   Engine conversions increased the weight of the Datsun 260Z

              by about 200 Tbs, and the 2407 by about 100 lbs.      The weight

               increase was concentrated at the front end of the vehicles.

              This weight change distribution may put undue

              stress on the front suspension and unsafely affect

              vehicle operation and stability.     In addition the brake

              system originally designed for the Datsun vehicles might

              not adequately handle the requirements of the more powerful

              and heavier converted vehicles.     These concerns were not

              investigated in depth since they relate to safety and not


         ‘Test Results

         Comparative emission data from the testing of the original and

         modified 1973 Datsun 2402 is summarized in Table I, and from

         the 1974 Datsun 2607 in Table II.     Data from the initial
         testing of the modified Datsun 240Z was not included in Table

         I since the original carburetor was defective and had to be

         replaced.     Hot start CVS—72 test procedures performed

         on a 1973 Chevrolet 350—4V simulating the Datsun "Z" car

         inertia weight and road load horsepower requirement from

         a previous s_tudy4 was also included in Table I and I1 for


Ibid 3

1973 Datsun 2407
The official CVS—75 and Hot Start CVS—72 data showed

about a 40% reduction in HC and 35% in NOx emissions

after the engine conversion.     The Highway Cycle Test as

well as steady state tests showed about the same magnitude

of reductions.     The change in CO emissions was not con—

sistent, however.     In most cases CO emissions increased

with the engine conversion.     The evaporative emission

(SHED) test indicated no adverse effect on the evaporative
system integrity due to the engine conversion.      Fuel

economy decreased by over 40%.

1974 Datsun 260Z

The official CVS—75 test showed about a 30% decrease
in HC and CO emissions and no significant change in

NOx after the engine conversion.     On the Hot Start CVS—72

HC decreased by 15% and CO by 29% with no change in NOx.

Data from Highway Cycle and Steady State Tests generally

showed substantial decrease of emissions.     The evaporative

emission test also showed significant reduction of HC mass

emission.    Fuel economy decreased by about 30%.

1973 Chevrolet 350 CID Emission SimuTation

The Hot Start CVS—72 test on a 1973 Chevrolet 350—4V

vehicle simulating the Datsun "Z" car showed HC, CO, and

NOx emissions lower than both the unmodified 2402 and

2607 cars.

                 As predicted, exhaust emissions generally decreased with the

                 vehicle conversions using the Targer size engine.   The increase

                 in CO on the modified Datsun 2407Z, however, was an anomally.

                 Comparison of the two modified Datsun vehicles emissions (both

                 use Chevrolet 350 CID engines although of different model years)

                 showed that the modified Datsun 24072 has significantly higher

                 CO emission.   The increase of CO emission on the modified Datsun

                 2407 may be attributed to different carburetor calibration since

                 the service carburetor used was not the original equipment part.

Conclusion and Recommendation

The proposed Nordskog Industries, Datsun Engine Conversion Kit will allow

the 1nsta11ation of a more powerful Chevrolet 350 CID engine on Datsun "Z" car

chassis.   If all the emission control components of the replacement engine are

retained, theoretically the vehicle emissions should decrease or not change sign—

ificantly after the conversion.     Evaluation of two typical Datsun conversion

confirmed the above prediction.     The fuel economy, however, decreased


The applicant performed the actual engfne conversions during the test evaluation

yet various problems become apparent.    Although most of these problems were

corrected easily during the testing, the same problems may be encountered by

the consumers intending to perform the engine conversions who are not adequately

equipped to correct or detect the problems.     To prevent increase of emissions

due to carburetor or ignition malfunction (a frequent problem) appropriate

diagnostic and service procedures are required in the installation instructions.

A major concern is the safety of the converted vehicle.   Since the ARB has no

authority to evaluate vehicle safety, it is recommended that a copy of this report

be transmitted to the CalTifornia Highway Patrol for appropriate action it

deems necessary.

Since the use of the proposed engine conversion kit is not expected to result

in an increase in exhaust emissions of the converted vehicles, it is re—

commended that Nordskog Industries, Inc. be granted an exemption from tfie

prohibitions of Section 27156 of the Vehicle Code for its "Nordskog. Industries

Datsun Engine Conversion Kit".

                     Table I — Emission Test Data
                          of 1973 Datsun 2407

CVS_— 75

                                                 Grams Per Mile
                                   HC        C0                NOx     MPG
Baseline                           3.0      17.7               2.3     19

Modified Datsun                    1.7      20.5               1.5     11.3

% Change                           —43      16                 —35     ~41

CVS — 72

Chevrolet {(2407 SimuTation)*      0.9       6.2,              1.07    12

Baseline (2 Tests)                 1.7      14.9               2.2     20.8
Modified Datsun (2 Tests)          1.1      10.5               1.5     11.8

% Change from BaseTine             —35       —30               —32         ~43

Highway Cycle

BaseTine                           1.2       8.4               2.6     25.3
Modified Datsun                    0.6      10.9               1.9     14.8

% Change                           —50      30                 —27     ~42

Loaded Mode                                         Mass Emissions
                                                     Grams per Min.
ldle                                         HC           CO          NOx

BaseTine                                     0.8         19.1         0.07
Modified Datsun                              0.2          0.7         0.09

% Change                                     —75         —96          29

* 1973 Chevy 350—4V tested at Datsun 2407 inertia weight setting and
  road Toad horsepower.

Table I Continued

Low Cruise

                                              Grams Per Mile
                                      HC     co          NOx   MPG
Baseline                              1.3    2.6         2.9   23.8
Modified Datsun                       0.7    6.9         2.0   14.0
% Change                              —46    131         45    —41

High Cruise

Baseline                              1.4    5.1         3.3   19.1
Modified Datsun                       0.6    9.3         4.2   11.9
% Change                              —57    82          27    —38

Steady State. (3 Times .road. load)

30 _MPH

Baseline                              1.4    2.6         3.0   27.1
Modified Datsun                       0.5    7.0         1.0   15.8
% Change                              —64    170         —67   —42
Baseline                              1.1    3.3         2.8   20.8
Modified Datsun                       9.5   13.0         2.3   13.6 .
% Change                              —55    294         —18   —35

50 _MPH

Baseline                              1.5   22.5         5.6   16.5
Modified Datsun                       0.7   12.0         5.4   11.7
% Change                              —53    —44         ~4    26

Table I Continued

Evaporative Emission (SHED) Test
                                             HC, Grams
                                   Diurnal   Hot         Total

BaseJine                            0.3         9.5          9.8

Modified Datsun                     0.8        10.3         11.2

% Change                                                     4

                     Table II — Emission Test Data
                          of 1974 Datsun 260Z

CVS — 75

                                              Grams Per Mile
                                   HC        [                 NOx     MPG

BaseTine                           3.0      13.7               1.5     16.2
Modified Datsun                    2.0       9.9               1.5     12.4

% Change                           ~33      —28                0       ~23

CVS — 72

Chevrolet {2407 Simulation)*       0.9       6.2               1.07    12
Baseline (2 Tests)                 2.0      11.8               1.4     16.7

Modified Datsun (2 Tests)          1.7       8.4               1.4     13.7

% Change from Baseline             —15      —29                0       —18

Highway Cycle

Baseline                           1.0       3.6               1.2     22.2
Modified Datsun                    0.7       5.0               2.3     15.6

% Change                           —30       39                92      —30

Loaded Mode                                          Mass Emissions
                                                      Grams per Min
                                             HC           CO          NOx

BaseTine                                     0.2          7.1         0.02

Modified Datsun                              2.1          0.6         0.04

% Change                                     950          =91         100

* 1973 Chevy 350—4V tested at Datsun 2407 inertia weight setting and
  road Toad.horsepower.

Table II Continued

Low Cruise

                                          Grams Per Mile
                                   HC    CO          NOx   MPG

Baseline                           0.8   2.5         1.6       25.8

Modified Datsun                    0.6   2.9         0.6       17.6

% Change                           —25   16          —63       —32

High Cruise

Baseline                           1.1   4.2         3.2       17.9

Modified Datsun                    0.6   2.4         1.4       17.0:

% Change                           ~45   —43         —56       —5

Steady State (3 Times road load)

Baseline                           0.8   2.5       1.5     27 .6

Modified Datsun                    0.5   2.2       0.5     18.4

% Change                           38    12        —67     —33


Baseline                           0.8   3.5       1.7     20.5

Modified Datsun                    0.4   2.2       0.9     18.8

% Change                           —50   —59       —47     —8

50 MPH                             0.8   5.0       5.4     16.6

Modified Datsun                    0.4   2.2       1.7     17.5

% Change                           —50   —56       —69     5

Table II Continued

Evaporative Emission (SHED Test
                                            HC, Grams
                                  Diurnal   Hot Soak    Total Mass

BaseTine                            0.3       11.9         12.2

Modified Datsun                     0.6        8.9          9.6

% Change                                                  —21

Document Created: 2005-09-01 12:45:54
Document Modified: 2005-09-01 12:45:54

| Previous E.O. D-75 | Next E.O. D-76-1 | Next E.O. D-77