Approval Details

Valid E.O.

Validity

This Executive Order approved the specified parts on on May 5, 1980.
As of Friday, August 23rd, 2019 this Executive Order has not been overturned or superceeded.

Approved Parts

Part NumberModelsModification
9-00001979 and older HD vehicles with Chrysler 440 CID engineKit includes modified original carburetor, modified distributor and water injection system. Ignition timing is advanced to 12-14 degrees before top dead center.

This Executive Order may be listed as:
  • C.A.R.B.E.O. D-97
  • Executive Order 97 / D97
  • ARB # D-97
  • Executive Order No: D-97
  • C.A.R.B. No. D-97
  • Resolution D-97
For Free CARB Executive Order Status verification, email an image of the device Executive Order label as well as the Year/Make/Model and Test Group # of the vehicle to [email protected]

Download: Executive Order D-97 PDF

D-97 Document:



                                                             (Page 1 of 2)




                           State of California
                          AIR RESOURCES BOARD

                         EXECUTIVE ORDER D—97
              Relating to Exemptions under Section 27156
                          of the Vehicle Code


                                  BAE
                "DODGE 440 MOTORHOME SYSTEM NO. 9—0000"


Pursuant to the authority vested in the Air Resources Board by Section
27156 of the Vehicle Code; and

Pursuant to the authority vested in the undersigned by Sections 39515 and
39516 of the Health and Safety Code and Executive Order G—45—5;

IT IS ORDERED AND RESOLYED: That the installation of the "Dodge 440
Motorhome System No. 9—0000" manufactured by BAE of 3032 Kashiwa Street,
Torrance, CA 90505, a division of Turdyne Corporation has been found not
to reduce the effectiveness of required motor vehicle pollution control
devices and, therefore, is exempt from the prohibitions of Section
27156 of the Yehicle Code for 1979 and older heavy— duty vehicles
equipped with the Chrysler 440 CID engine.

This Executive Order is valid provided that installation instructions
for this device will not recommend tuning the vehicle to specifications
different from those submitted by the device manufacturer.

Changes made to the design or operating conditions of the device, as
exempted by the Air Resources Board, that adversely affect the per—
formance of a vehicle‘s poliution control system shall invalidate
this Executive Order.

Marketing of this device using an identification other than that shown
in this Executive Order or marketing of this device for an application
other than those listed in this Executive Order shall be prohibited unijess
prior approval is obtained from the Air Resources Board.   Exemption of
a kit shall not be construed as an exemption to sell, offer for sale
or advertise any component of a kit as an individual device.

This Executive Order does not constitute any opinion as to the effect
that the use of this device may have on any warranty either expressed or
implied by the vehicle manufacturer.


BAE                                                     EXECUTIVE ORDER p—97
"DODGE 440 MOTORKOME SYSTEM NO. 9—0000"                    (Page 2 of 2)


THIS EXECUTIVE ORDER DOES NOT CONSTITUTE A CERTIFICATION, ACCREDITATION,
APPROVAL, OR ANY OTHER TYPE OF ENDORSEMENT BY THE AIR RESOURCES BOARD OF
ANY CLAIMS OF THE APPLICANT CONCERNING ANTI—PQOLLUTION BENEFITS OR ANY
ALLEGED BENEFITS OF THE "DODGE 440 MOTORKOME SYSTEM NO. 9—0000".

No claim of any kind, such as "Approved by Air Resources Board" may be made
with respect to the action taken herein in any advertising or other oral
or written communication.

Section 17500 of the Business and Professions Code makes untrue or
misleading advertising unlawful, and Section 17534 makes violation
punishable as a misdemeanor.

Section 43644 of the Health and Safety Code provides as follows:

     "43644.   (a) No person shall install, sell, offer for sale, or
     advertise, or, except in an application to the state board for
     certification of a device, represent, any device as a motor vehicle
     pollution control device for use on any used motor vehicle unless
     that device has been certified by the state board. No person shall
     sell, offer for sale, advertise, or represent any motor vehicle
     poliution control device as a certified device which, in fact, is
     not a certified device. Any violation of this subdivision is a
     misdemeanor."

Any apparent violation of the conditions of this Executive Order will be
submitted to the Attorney General of California for such action as he
deems advisable.


Executed at El Monte, California, this _«____               1980
                                            /) ,/
                                       £                  /’(———{



                                  //’//g’/’
                                  —
                                             /A(’/j///fiz _ hss
                                       Drachand, Chief
                                   Mob119 Source Contro] Division


                             State of California
                             AIR RESOURCES BOARD

                              November 17, 1979

                                Staff Report

                Evaluation of the BAE Turbocharger System
                in Accordance with Section 2222, Title 13
                     of the California Administrative Code


      Introduction

      BAE, of 3032 Kashiwa Street, Torrance, California 90505 has

      submitted an application for exemption of a turbocharger system

      from the prohibitions of Section 27156 of the Vehicle Code.       A

      specialized testing program consisting of steady state raw exhaust

      gas measurements was conducted instead of the Federal Test

      Procedure (FTP) due to the lTimitation of the application to

      heavy duty vehicles.


II.   System Description

      The BAE turbocharger system is an aftermarket kit designed as an

      add—on unit to the Chrysler 440 CID heavy duty engine.     The

      system consists of a Rajay turbocharger, replacement exhaust

      manifold and crossover pipe, modified distributor, water injec—

      tion unit, carburetor—to—intake manifold adapter box and miscel—

      laneous mounting and installation parts.     The compressor and

      turbine are on a common shaft driven by exhaust gas routed

      from the exhaust manifold through the turbine housing.     The


compressor increases the density of the air—fuel mixture passing

through the carburetor and supercharges the intake manifold to

increase the mass of air and fuel delivered to the cylinders thus

producing additional power during periods of relatively high

(engine) speed.

The BAE system uses the following modifications and controls:

     1.   The stock Carter Thermo—Quad carburetor is

          modified by increasing the length of the metering

          rod spring and by replacing secondary jets with a

          larger size (0.143 inch).     These modifications increase

          the fuel delivery capacity to match the increased air

          flow caused by turbocharging.


          Initial timing of 8° BTDC is advanced to 12—14° BTDC.


          A modified distributor replaces the OEM breakerless

          system.   The modified distributor has two pick—ups

          for the reluctor; one for the normal advance curve,

          and one to provide five distributor degrees of retard

          when a diaphragm/micro—switch senses intake manifold

          pressure of 2 psig or more.     The retard is used to

          prevent detonation during high boost.


An alternate method of providing retard under

boost conditions was added later in the test

program.     A Jacob‘s Electronic Ignition System

may be installed in place of the modified distributor/

microswitch combination to provide graduated retard

with increasing engine speed.


Water injection is used as a secondary control of detona—

tion in warm weather.     A water injector nozzle is
located at the top of the air cleaner with water and

pressure supplied from the recreational vehicle tap

water system.    A solenoid allows water to flow when boost

pressure exceeds 2 psig.     The water injection system was

later modified to use two nozzles opening at different

pressures.


Maximum boost pressure is limited by the size of the

passages in the carburetor—to—manifold adapter box

and compressor inlet passage.     No active boost

control is used.


      III. Test Vehicle

            Emissions testing was conducted on a 1977 Pioneer Class A

            motorhome (California dealer license 9164) supplied by the

            applicant.        This motorhome is built on a Chrysler M600 chassis

            and equipped with a Chrysler 440—3 heavy duty engine and three

            speed automatic transmission.        The vehicle is rated at 15,500

            pounds gross vehicle weight, and was tested at a loaded weight

            of 14,400 pounds.


            The vehicle was received with approximately 9000 miles on the

            odometer.        Preparation of the vehicle included setting the engine

            to Chrysler specifications and inflating rear dual tires to 70

            psig.        All testing was performed using premium tank fuel.     Retests

            were conducted with approximately 16,000 miles on the odometer.

| 0   IV.   Test Program

            Back—to—back steady state tests were conducted on the test

            vehicle at the following points:

                    1)      idle

                    2)      20, 40, 50, 60 mph at road load horsepower (RLKP)

                    3)     —20, 40, 50, 60 mph at two times road load (2XRL)

                    4)     20, 40, 50, 60 mph at three times road load (3XRL)


            Road load horsepower was determined to be 46HP at 50 mph and

            8.2 in. Hg manifold vacuum by road test.        Inlet and outlet tempera—

            tures and pressures were measured at the compressor and turbine for

            all poihts in the turbocharged configuration during the initial test.


       Bench testing was performed to measure the advance and retard

       characteristics of the OEM and modified distributors.    The

       opening points of the retard switch and water injector solenoid

       were also determined.


       In addition, a brief evaluation was made of driveability and

       performance in both the baseline and turbocharged configurations.


       ARB Test Results

       A.   Distributor Bench Test

            The OEM and modified distributors have slightly different

            centrifugal and vacuum advance curves as shown in Table 1.     All

            data is in distributor rpm and degrees with distributor idle

!| 0        set at 300 rpm.    The retard circuit in the modified distributor

            provides five distributor degrees of retard from the original

            vacuum advance.


                                Table 1 — Distributor Bench Test



                   Centrifugal Advance                     Vacuum Advance
            OEM       MOD ADV*      MOD RET*         VAC       OEM     MOD ADV*
RPM_    (deg)          _(deg)        (deg)         {in Hg)    (deg)     _(deg)

 100        0           0            —5.0             0        0         0
 200        0           0            —5.0             3        0.5       0
 300        0          0             —5.0             6        3.0       0
 400        0          0             —5.5             9        5.0       1.5
 500        0          0             —5.5            12        7.5       5.0
 600        2          1             —4.0            15        9.0       9.0
 700        3          3             —2.0            18        9.0      10.5
 800         3.5       5              0              20        9.0      10.5
 900        4.0        7.5            2.0
1000        4.5        8.0            3.0
1100        5.0        8.5           3.0
1200        5.5        9.0           3.5
1300        6.5        9.5           4.0
1400        7.0       10.0           4.5
1500        7.5       10.0           4.5
1600        8.0       10.5           5.0
1700        9.0       11.0           5.5
1800        9.5       11.0           6.0
1900    10.0          11.0           6.0
2000    10.5          11.0           6.0

*MOD ADV = Modified distributor, advance pick—up
 MOD RET = Modified distributor, retard pick—up


       B.         Advance/Retard Microswitch Bench Test

                  The advance/retard microswitch added to the vehicle as part

                  of the BAE kit switches from the advance to the retard

                  pick—up at approximately 0.2—0.3 psig.           2.0 psig is the

                  specified switching point.


Water Injection Solenoid Bench Test

The original single water injection solenoid closed and allowed

water to filow at approximately 0.4 psig as compared to the

specified switching point of 2.0 psig.    The dual nozzle system

specifies water injection at 0.50 psig on one nozzle and 1.5

psig on the other.    Actual opening points were at 1 psig and

1.5 psig respectively.   Actual closing points were approximately

0.5 psig for both nozzles.


Steady State Emissions Tests

The results of steady state emission tests are given in

Tables 2 through 4.   Two baseline tests were conducted in

March followed by two device tests in April; one (4/20/79)

with basic timing advanced from 8° BTDC to 14° BTDC, and

one (4/23/79) with timing set at the stock specification

of 8° BTDC.


High NOx results on the device tests required modifications

of the BAE system to correct the NOx rise.


The vehicle was retested in October in fwo configurations.
In the first retest of the system (10/9/79) the turbocharger

system was modified with a second water injection nozzfe

to provide a staged water injection effect.   The second

retest (10/12/79) was conducted with the staged water

injection and a Jacob‘s electronic ignition system to provide

a variable retard under boost instead of the previous single

stage retard.


               Table 2 — NOx Raw Exhaust Measurements



           Baseline NO, ppm      Device NO,ppm          Device Retest NO, ppm
Mode       4/5/79    4/6/79     4720/79 4/23/79         10/9/79      10/12/79

idle          96       136        100      183            79           119
20/RL        688       613        991     1130           350           671
40           978      1033        781      706          1002          1196
50          2186      2186       1861     1653          2046          2161
60          3143      2969       3586     3586          1528          1691

idle          96       136        100      183            79           119
20/ 2XRL     818       714       1216     1046           553           896
40          2348      2521       2201     1897          2084          2009
50           539       739       4439     4439          1168           647
60          1289      1408        537      225           119            99

idle,       116        116        183      100            99            99
20/YXRL    1117       1378       1861     1755          1196          1283
40    ~_   1927       1927       4203     3983          2200          2280
50                                491      468            99            99
55 (2nd)                          537      311           119           180


                    Table 3 — CO Raw Exhaust Measurements



            Baseline CO, %          Device CO, %       Device Retest CO, %
Mode        175779 476/79         4/20/79   4/23/79    10/9779   16712779

idle        0. 79      0.73        0. 53    0.99        1. 26      0.62
20/RL       0. 36      0. 30       0.20     0. 20       0. 46      1.50
40          0. 20      0.10        0.10     0.10        0. 15      0. 20
50          0.20       0.15        0.10     0.10        0. 15      0. 20
60          0. 73      0.96        0.15     0.10        2. 30      2.23

idle        2.16       2.09        0.36     0. 47       1.26       0. 90
20/2XRL     0.52       0.41        0.20     0. 20       0. 31      1.56
40          0.15       0. 20       0.15     0.15        0. 15      0. 20
50          6.94       6.02        0. 47    0. 15       4.50       6.13
60          5. 38      5.28        4. 37    6.22         *          *

idle        2.09      0.79         0. 64    0. 70       1. 69      2.09
20/3XRL     0. 90     0.31         0.20     0. 15       2.09       1.69
40          2. 30      2.09        0.10     0.10        1. 25      1.19
50                                 4.82     5.01            *       *
55(2nd)                            6.22     6.78            *       *



*Exceeds instrument capacity of 8.32%


                    Table 4 — HC Raw Exhaust Measurements


            Baseline HC*, ppm         Device HC*, ppm       Device Retest HC*, ppm
Mode        4/5/79        4/6/79     4/20/79   4/23/79      10/9/79       10/12/79

idle          347           240          637     612          148           121
20/RL         196           133           72     106           34           104
40             46            26          267      26            8             8
50             46            53           21      45           17            17
60             46            53           59      98           43            34

idle          601           267          847     499          148          139
20/2XRL       347           133           87      69           25          104
40             46            26           74      53           17           25
50            347           160           87      66           77           77
60            196            80          168     192           95          157

idle          647           240          554     452         166           139
20/ 3XRL      445           106          146      53         130           104
40            196           106           69      50          69            60
50                                       154     135         148           203
55(Z2nd)                                 133     106          86           112


*HC as carbon {not hexane)




                                   10.


Discussion of Results

The first set of tests (4/20—4/23) with the BAE turbocharger

system installed indicated appreciable increases in NOx at 20

and 60 mph at road load horsepower, at 20 and 50 mph at two

times road load, and at 20 and 40 mph at three times road

load as shown in Table 2.   There were also scattered increases

in HC.


The NOx rise is caused by higher cylinder temperatures and

pressures resulting from turbocharging.    There are a number of

modifications that can be made to reduce NOx from a turbocharged

vehicle such as reducing compression ratio, retarding timing, or

injecting water or fuel into the incoming air—fuel charge.     Most

manufacturers already incorporate one or more of these methods to

eliminate preignition or detonation, which are also directly

related to high cylinder temperature and pressure.


BAE elected to change theif' water injection system, for NOx control,

from a single nozzle opening at two psig to a two—stage system

with two nozzles, one opening at 0.5 psig and the other at 1.5 psig.


A second change for NOx control is the option of adding a Jacob‘s

Electronic Ignition System which gives gradual retard under

boost.   The Jacob‘s system replaces the retard diaphragm and is

used with the two—stage water injection.



                               11.


The results of tests conducted 10/9/79 and 10/12/79 (see Tables

2—4) shows that BAE has generally solved the NOx and HC problem

which appeared in previous tests.   A comparison of the baseline

and 10/9/79 device test shows higher device NOx at 50 mph, 2XRL,

and at 40 mph, 3XRL.   These values are substantially reduced from

the values found in April, and appear to be a result of a slightly

different entry point into the power enrichment circuit.     The

turbocharged configuration is beginning enrichment at these points,

evidenced by the increase in CO, while the baseline is already

rich.   Because larger amounts of fuel {denoted by higher CO) are

being consumed by the baseline engine, Tower NOx values would be

expected.   However, this occurs during a period of rapid transition

from cruise to power enrichment modes; therefore, the turbocharged

engine should give CO and NOx values equivalent to the baseline at

a slightly higher speed, perhaps 51 or 52 mph (note the NOx and CO

values of the 10/12/79 test at 50 miph, 2XRL)}.   For this reason, the

NOx and CO increases at the higher loads and speeds are considered

to be transitory and negligible.


The test conducted 10/12/79 with the Jacobs ignition control

unit indicates a questionable NOx value at 40 mph, 1XRL which

is about 20% over the baseline figure.     This point may be a

result of the Jacobs system, but it is unlikely since other

points do not show the same discrepancy.


VI.   Concliusion and Recommendation

      It is the staff‘s opinion that the BAE Turbocharger System for

      the 440—3 heavy duty Chrysler engine will have no significant

      adverse effect on emissions from a vehicle when instailed in

      accordance with BAE instructions.      It is recommended that the Board

      grant BAE an exemption from the prohibitions of VC 27156 for this

      system using either the retard pickup/microswitch, or the Jacobs

      ignition system to provide the necessary retard.




                                       13.



Document Created: 2005-09-01 12:40:22
Document Modified: 2005-09-01 12:40:22

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