Approval Details

Valid E.O.


This Executive Order approved the specified parts on on October 3, 1980.
As of Wednesday, October 23rd, 2019 this Executive Order has not been overturned or superceeded.

Approved Parts

Part NumberModelsModification
28-0000C1980 VW gasoline powered Rabbit, Scirocco, and Jetta with manual transmissionInstall water injector

This Executive Order may be listed as:
  • C.A.R.B.E.O. D-97-1
  • Executive Order 97-1 / D97-1
  • ARB # D-97-1
  • Executive Order No: D-97-1
  • C.A.R.B. No. D-97-1
  • Resolution D-97-1
For Free CARB Executive Order Status verification, email an image of the device Executive Order label as well as the Year/Make/Model and Test Group # of the vehicle to [email protected]

Download: Executive Order D-97-1 PDF

D-97-1 Document:

                                                                  (Page 1 of 2)

                          State ‘of California
                          AIR RESOURCES BOARD

                        EXECUTIVE ORDER D—97—1
              Relating to Exemptions under Section 27156
                          of the Vehicle Code

                    BAE TURBOCHARGER KIT #28—0000C

Pursuant to the authority vested in the Air Resources Board by Section
27156 of the Vehicle Code; and                             .

Pursuant to the authority vested in the undersigned by Sections 39515
and 39516 of the Health and Safety Code and Executive Order G—45—5;

IT IS ORDERED AND RESOLVED:   That the installation of the BAE Turbocharger
Kit #28—0000C manufactured by BAE of 3032 Kashiwa Street, Torrance, CA 90505,
has been found not to reduce the effectiveness of required motor vehicle
pollution control devices and, therefore, is exempt from the prohibitions
of Section 27156 of the Vehicle Code for 1980 gasoline—powered Volkswagen
Rabbit, Scirocco, and Jetta passenger cars equipped with manual transmissions
and three—way catalysts with closed—loop feedback controls.

This Executive Order is valid provided that installation instructions
for this device will not recommend tuning the vehicle to specifications
different from those submitted by the vehicle manufacturer.

Changes made to the design or operating conditions of the device, as
exempted by the Air Resources Board, that adversely affect the performance
of a vehicle‘s pollution control system shall invalidate this Executive

Marketing of this device using an identification other than that shown
in this Executive Order or marketing of this device for an application
other than those listed in this Executive Order shall be prohibited unless
prior approval is obtained from the Air Resources Board. Exemption of a
kit shall not be construed as an exemption to sell, offer for sale or
advertise any component of a kit as an individual device.

This Executive Order does not constitute any opinion as to the effect
that the use of this device may have on any warranty either expressed
or implied by the vehicle manufacturer.

BAE                                                         EXECUTIVE ORDER D—97—1
BAE TURBOCHARGER KIT #28—0000C         *        ‘                (Page 2 of 2)


No claim of any kind, such as "Approved by Air Resources Board" may be
made with respect to the action taken herein in any advertising or other
oral or written communication.

Section 17500 of the Business and Professions Code makes untrue or
misleading advertising unlawful, and Section 17534 makes violation
punishable as a misdemeanor.

Section 43644 of the Health and Safety Code provides as follows:

     "43644. (a) No person shall install, sell, offer for sale, or
     advertise, or, except in an application to the state board for
     certification of a device, represent, any device as a motor vehicle
     poliution control device for use on any used motor vehicle unless
     that device has been certified by the state board. No person shall
     sell, offer for sale, advertise, or represent any motor vehicle
     pollution control device as a certified device which, in fact, is
     not a certified device.     Any violation of this subdivision is a
Any apparent violation of the conditions of this Executive Order will be
submitted to the Attorney General of California for such action as he
deems advisable.

Executed at El Monte, California, this     é?       day of October, 1980.

                                      © D. Drachand, Chief
                                     Mobile Source Control Division

                            State of California
                            AIR RESOURCES BOARD

                               Staff Report

                                July, 1980

               Evaluation of the BAE #28—0000C Turbocharger
               Kit in Accordance with Section 2222, Title 13
                   of the California Administrative Code


       BAE, of 3032 Kashiwa Street, Torrance, California 90505 has applied

       for exemption of a turbocharger kit from the prohibitions of Section

       27156 of the Vehicle Code.   This kit, #28—0000C, is intended for

       Volkswagen Rabbit, Scirocco, and Jetta passenger cars with three—

       way catalysts and manual transmissions.

       BAE has submitted back—to—back emission tests conducted on a 1980

       Volkswagen Scirocco at an independent laboratory.   Confirmatory

       tests were conducted on the same vehicle at the Air Resources

       Board (ARB) laboratory in El Monte.

I1I.   Turbocharger System Applicability

       BAE‘s kit #28—0000C is designed for Volkswagen (VW) Rabbit, Scirocco,

       and Jetta models having gasoline—powered, 1588cc (97 CID) displace—

       ment engines with manual transmissions and three—way catalyst

       systems with closed loop feedback controls.   These vehicles have

       Bosch mechanical fuel injection and electronic ignition.   The

       distributors are controlled by a centrifugal advance mechanism

       and a vacuum advance/retard diaphragm.

The turbocharger kit is not applicable to Volkswagen vehicles with

diesel engines or automatic transmissions, or to Volkswagen trucks,

vans, or Dasher modets.

The design of the stock vehicles has the engine mounted transversely

with the intake manifold above the exhaust manifold on the side of

the engine between the engine block and the firewall.   The original

exhaust manifold is replaced by a BAE manifold that bolts directly

to the turbocharger inlet.   This locates the turbocharger between

the engine and firewall just under the exhaust manifold.   The BAE

exhaust manifold has a port for the feedback control oxygen sensor

and a tap for exhaust sampling.   The turbine outlet is connected

to the stock exhaust system by a short curved tube.

On the intake side, the original duct joining the VW air inlet

control box and the intake manifold is replaced by a 3" diameter

pipe from the flow control box to the compressor inlet, and a 2"

diameter pipe from the compressor outlet to the intake manifold.

A pressure relief valve is inserted in the compressor outlet pipe

as a boost control to limit intake manifold pressure to 7 psig.

A water injecton system is included in the kit to reduce detonation.

The water is piped from a small reservoir through an electric pump

to the compressor inlet pipe.   A control box sensing compressor

outlet pressure and distributor rpm determines the water flowrate

by feeding a variable voltage to the electric pump.

Two conditions must be met before water will begin to flow:

{1) engine speed must be at least 1500 rpm, and (2) a positive

pressure must be sensed in the compreséor outlet pipe.    Water

passes through a fixed 0.0225 inch diameter orifice in the water

line, and flow is directly proportional to engine speed once it

is initiated.

Turbocharger lubrication is provided by a steel braided line from

the oil filter cap to the turbocharger bearing housing.    Oil return

is gravity fed from the turbocharger bearings to the oil pan through

a second, larger diameter, steel braided line.

BAE provides all parts including miscellaneous installation hardware

in the #28—0000C kit.   Installation instructions are provided along

with drawings and schematics of key features.    BAE recommends tuning

to original manufacturer‘s specifications with a suggestion to use

the highest octane unleaded fuel available.

IV.   Test Program

      A 1980 Volkswagen Scirocco with a five speed manual transmission

      was used for testing.   The vehicle had approximately 4000 miles on

      the odometer at the start of testing.   The following test procedure

      was used to determine emissions of the unmodified (baseline)

      vehicle at both Mardikian and the ARB laboratories:

           One cold start CVYS—75 at road load horsepower (1XRL)

           One hot start Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) at 1XRL

           One cold start CVS—75 at twice road load horsepower (2XRL)

           One hot start HFET at 2XRL

      The same test sequence was conducted on the vehicle after the

      turbocharger installation to provide a back—to—back emissions


      Applicant‘s Test Data

      The applicant‘s emission test data in Table 1 was generated at

      Mardikian Engineering Automotive Research Center.     The vehicle

      was tested at 2000 lbs. inertia weight and 1XRL = 9.1 horsepower.

      The percent difference from baseline emissions is given in paren—

      theses.   Large pertentage increases in hydrocarbons (HC) are due

      mainly to the unusually low magnitude of baseline HC numbers.

                                      Table 1

                            Applicant‘s Emission Data

                                                   (grams/mile)                {mi/gal)
     Test         Load    Test Date       HC             CO          NOx        FE
Baseline CVS—75   1XRL    2/19/80     0. 09         1.32          0.87          30. 31
Device   CVS—75    1XRL   3/31/80     0.26(188%)    1.96(48%)     0.40(—54%)    31.03(2%)
Baseline CVS—75   2XRL    4/11/80     0.49          1.51          0.80          24 .27
Device   CVS—75   2XRL    4/3/80      0.43(—12%)    1.87(24%)     0.61(—24%)    26. 39(9%)

Baseline HFET     1XRL    4/11/80     0. 03         0.15          0.83          38. 64
Device   HFET     1XRL    4/2/80      0.18(500%)    0.24(60%)     0.50(—40%)    39 .23(2%)
Baseline HEET     2XRL    4/11/80     0. 05         0.31          1.48          28. 73
Device   HFET     2XRL    4/2/80      0.09 (80%)    0.26(—16%)    0.47(—68%)    31 .05(8%)


VI.   ARB Test Data

      ARB emission testing was conducted at the Haagen—Smit Laboratory in

      E1 Monte, California, on the same vehicle tested by the applicant.

      The turbocharger kit was removed, and the vehicle was returned to

      its stock configuration for the ARB tests.

      Engine tune—up parameters were set to manufacturer‘s specifications.

      Tank fuel (Chevron unleaded) was specified as the test fuel for

      all tests.    The same emissions tests were run on the Scirocco at

      the ARB lab as were run at Mardikian.     The only differences in

      testing were that the ARB test used the certification inertia

      weight of 2250 lbs. versus 2000 lbs. at Mardikian, and road load

      horsepower (1XRL) was taken as 9.8 versus 9.1 at Mardikian.       The

      ARB used 1XRL = 9.8 hp as a worst case representing the certification

      horsepower for a VW Rabbit convertible.

      In addition to the emissions test series, some steady state tests

      were conducted to verify horsepower increases, water injection

      rates, and boost pressure.    These results are given in Appendix II.

      The water injection switch cut—in/cut—out pressure is approximately

      0.5 psig.    An informal before—and—after driveability test was

      conducted to detect obvious surge, detonation, hesitation and other

      driveability problems that might occur.    The turbocharged vehicle

      exhibited good driveability in all respects.    Severe detonation

      occurred in one instance as a results of a kink in the water injection

      line stopping water flow.

ARB emissions data is presented in Tables 2 and 3 for the naturally

aspirated and turbocharged vehicle, respectively.   Table 4 is a

comparison of naturally aspirated versus turbocharged emissions

data with the percent difference from baseline emissions given in

parentheses.   Again, the low magnitude of some baseline emission

values make some large percentage increases or decreases negligible.

Some of the data in Table 3 (noted by an asterisk) was not considered
in the evaluation due to water leakage from the water injection unit

into the compressor inlet pipe.    This leakage could have affected

emissions or fuel economy results.

The emissions data from the turbocharged vehicle that was used in

Table 4 was taken with the water injection system disabled.    Chart

recorder traces of intake manifold pressure showed no positive

(gage) pressure during the CVS—75 or HFET tests.    (According to BAE

design specifications, water injection should occur only under

conditions of positive intake manifold (gage) pressure, therefore,

the water injection system leakage was considered secondary to

testing the turbocharger system.

                                        Table 2

                  ARB Emission Data — Naturally Aspirated VW Scirocco

                                                   (grams/mile)                 {mi/gal)
     Test            Load   Test Date       HC           CO              NOx        FE

Baseline CVS—75      1XRL    6/19/80       0.13         1.01            1.20        24.7
Baseline CVS—75      1XRL    6/26/80       0.16         0.87            1.18        24.8
                             Average       0.14         0.94            1.19        24.8

Baseline CVS—75      2XRL    6/20/80       0.12         0.92            1.47        23.0

Baseline HFET        1XRL    6/19/80       0.04         0.05            1.64        34.6
Baseline HFET        1XRL    6/26/80       0.04         0.09            1. 57       34.2
                             Average       0.04         0.07            1.60        34.4

Baseline HFET        2XRL    6/20/80       0.06         0.13            0.99        27.0

                                     Table 3

                  ARB Emissions Data — Turbocharged VW Scirocco

                                                (grams/mile}              (mi/gal)
     Test         Load   Test Date       HC           CQ           NOx        FE

Device CVS—75*    1XRL   7/22/80        0.17         1.05         0.54      24.8
Device CVS—75     1XRL   7/31/80        0.05         1.24         0.67      25.4

Device CVS—75     2XRL   7/23/80        0.28         1.42         0.71      22.9

Device HFET*      1XRL   7/21/80        0.05         0.09         0.71       33.6
Device HFET*      1XRL   7/22/80        0.05         0.16         0.72       29.4
Device HFET       IXRL   7/21780        0.05         0.13         0.78       33.5
Device HFET       1XRL   7/31/80        0.02         0.19         0.57       35 .7
                         Average        0.04         0.16         0.68       34.6

Device HFET       2XRL   7/21/80        0.05         0.26         0.43      27.1
Device HFET       2XRL   7/23780        0.05         0.24         0.53      27 .1
                         Average        0.05         0.25         0. 48     27 .1

*Data not used for comparison due to leaking water injection system.

                                     Table 4

                  ARB Data — Comparison of Naturally Aspirated
                       vs. Turbocharged Scirocco Emissions

     Test           Load     EC                 co            nox           __FE
Baseline CVS—75     1XRL      0.14              0. 94         1.19           24.

                                                                                   4» co
Device CVS—75       1XRL      0.05 (—64%)       1.24 (32%)    0.67 {—44%)    25.           (2%)
Baseline CVS—75     2XRL      0.12              0. 92         1.47           23.

                                                                                   w O
Device CVS—75       2XRL      0.28 (133%)       1.42 (54%)    0.71 (—52%)    22.           (0%)
Baseline HFET       T1XRL     0.04              0.07          1.60           34.

                                                                                   o s
Device HFET         1XRL      0.04 (0%)         0.16 (129%)   0.68 (—58%)    34.           (1%)
Baseline HFET       2XRL      0.06              0.13          0.99           27.0
Device HFET         2XRL      0.05 (—17%)       0.25 (92%)    0.48 (—52%)    27 1 (0%)



The only significant changes in emissions indicated by Table 4

are an across the board reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and an

increase in hydrocarbons (HC) on a cold start CVS—75 test at 2XRL.

The other increases or decreases in emissions and fuel economy are

insignificant.   The HC increase at 2XRL is due entirely to HC in

the cold transient phase that may have been caused by a long cranking

period or a restart.

The overall lower NOx might be attributed to an increase in catalyst

efficiency as a result of turbocharging.   The turbine housing may

be acting as a thermal reactor or "afterburner" by mixing the

exhaust at temperatures high enough to cause the HC and CO to

combine with oxygen.   This would deplete the oxygen in the exhaust

gas that would otherwise reach the catalyst.   Lower exhaust gas

oxygen concentrations would enhance the reducing atmosphere in

the three—way catalyst and improve its NOx reduction efficiency.

The oxygen sensor signal would not be affected since the sensor

is upstream of the turbine.   The oxidation process in a three—way

catalyst may be adversely affected by the lower oxygen content if

the catalyst temperatufe is reduced, but this might be offset by

the HC and CO burned in the turbine housing.


The data from the Mardikian laboratory shows the same trends of

significant NOx reduction as the ARB data.     The Mardikian data,

however, is not directly comparable to ARB data because 1) the

water injection system may have been leaking, 2) the test inertia

weight was less than the certification inertia weight, 3) the

vehicle may have been run with the timing advanced, and 4) instru—

ment and dynamometer calibrations may be different from ARB equipment.

Figure 1 in Apperndix I is a comparison of naturally aspirated

versus turbocharged horsepower at wide open throttle {WOT)}.     The

differences between BAE and ARB data are due mainly to dynamometer

calibration (note also the difference in CVS—75 fuel economy between

Tables 1 and 4).   ARB horsepower data was taken in third gear to

limit maximum wheel speed.   Both sets of data show roughly 30 to

40 percent increase in horsepower for the turbocharged engine at
WOT at engine speeds over 3500 rpm.     Boost is limited to approxi—

mately seven psig as specified by the applicant (see figure 2,

Appendix I).

ARB emissions tests were conducted at IXRL and 2XRL, but no

positive pressure was observed in the intake manifold during the

tests.   Since the water injection system is not designed to supply

water under vacuum, it was disabled to prevent leakage that might

affect emissions measurements.     As an example of possible effects


of water injection, the difference in fuel economy in Table 3 on

the HFET at 1XRL (marked with asterisks) is due to water injection.

The test of 7/21/80 consumed 17 ml of water while the test

of 7/22/80 consumed 35 m1 of water.      The difference of 18 m1 of

water is apparently responsible for a four mpg difference in fuel

economy.     A leaking check valve was replaced between these tests,

but the water leakage increased.      The basic problem appears to

be intermittent operation of the water pump under vacuum conditions

caused by a faulty water injection control module.

Water injection was not necessary on emissions tests, but it is

necessary on this vehicle to prevent detonation under conditions

of positive manifold vacuum.     The reservoir used by BAE hoilds

about a liter of water.     Based on the flow data in figure 3,

Appendix I, the reservoir can be emptied in a relatively short

time under boost.     A "low water" indicator or other warning

device should be incorporated to avoid engine damage from a dry

water reservoir.

The presence of the BAE system does not require any change of

original VW tune—up parameters, routine engine adjustments, or

servicing.    The distributor is not physically modified.   A check

valve is used to dump positive pressure on the retard side of

the advance/retard diaphragm to avoid timing advance under boost.


VI.   Conclusion and Recommendation

      Emission tests indicate that the BAE #28—0000C turbocharger kit

      will not adversely affect emissions when installed in accordance

      with instructions submitted to the ARB.   The staff recommends

      that BAE be given an exemption from the prohibitions of VC 27156

      for this kit for 1980 Volkswagen Rabbit, Scirocco and Jetta

      passenger cars having manual transmissions and three—way catalysts

      with feedback controls.


                           FIG 1: VW SCIROCCO — HORSEPOWER vs. RPM

             1002                                                            BAE — TURBO, 4TH GEAR, WOT


                                                                       ARB — TURBO, 3RD GEAR, WOT

                                                                            BAE — NAT. ASP., 4TH GEAR, WOT

                                                                       ARB — NAT. ASP., 3RD GEAR, WOT






                                                                                                             I xipuaddy
                      T                                                1—
                                 1           T            t
                    1000       2000        3000         4000         5000     © 6000

                                         ENGINE RPM

                                                                                                Appendix I



                 5        ARB DATA, 3RD GEAR WOT
                     =                                       *

Boost                                                    \            (\
Pressure         4.                                               BAE DATA, 3RD & 4TH GEAR WOT

(PST)            3.



                            T       T                    T        T                 T     ~T—
                     0      1       2                    3       4                 5       6

                                               ENGINE RPM


               2004                                                            4

               150.             ARB DATA                                   «

Water Flow                                                                          BAE DATA
Through        12‘:7
0225 inch      19Q.

    »           75.                            /

               25.                         ,"

                            y      T                 T           T                 T
                      0     1      2                3             4                5      6

                                           ENGINE RPM


                                                                                                    Appendix II

                                                 ARB Data — Steady States*
                                                                                                              Water Injection
                  Indicated Horsepower                     Vehicle Speed (mph)       Device Boost                 Rates
 Engine RPM     Baseline   Modified      % Increase        Baseline       Modified     (psig)                     {ml/sec)

  2000            28            28           0                22            27           1.2    _                      —
  2500            32            34           6                28            33           2.2                           —

  3000            40            46          15                38            39           3.4                      60/33

 3500             46            62          35                41            47           5.0                           —

 4000             52            74          42                43            53           6.0                      158/58

  4500            60            80          33                45      .     60           6.5                      140/46

  5000            67             —           —                58             —            —                            —

 *performed in 3rd gear

Document Created: 2005-09-01 12:15:19
Document Modified: 2005-09-01 12:15:19

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