Approval Details

Valid E.O.

Validity

This Executive Order approved the specified parts on on February 29, 1980.
As of Wednesday, December 12th, 2018 this Executive Order has not been overturned or superceeded.

Approved Parts

ModelsModification
1979 and older vehicles powered by a Chrysler HD 360-3 CID engineAC housing is relocated, OE vacuum advance is replaced with dual diaphragm type, vacuum signal to distributor is changed from ported to ported/manifold vacuums with aid of tee

This Executive Order may be listed as:
  • C.A.R.B.E.O. D-99
  • Executive Order 99 / D99
  • ARB # D-99
  • Executive Order No: D-99
  • C.A.R.B. No. D-99
  • Resolution D-99
For Free CARB Executive Order Status verification, email an image of the device Executive Order label as well as the Year/Make/Model and Test Group # of the vehicle to [email protected]

Download: Executive Order D-99 PDF

D-99 Document:



                                                                      (Page 1 of 2 )


                                      State of California
                                      A I R RESOURCES BOARD
                                   EXECUTIVE ORDER D-99
                       Relating t o Exemptions under Section 27156
                                    of the Vehicle Code


                                        TURBONETICS, INC.
                                         "TURBOFLO 360"

     Pursuant t o the authority vested in the Air Resources Board by Section
     27156 of the Vehicle Code; and

    Pursuant t o t h e authority vested i n the undersigned by Sections 39515 and
    39516 of the Health and Safety Code and Executive Order 6-45-5;
    IT IS ORDERED AND RESOLVED: That t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n of t h e "Turboflo 360"
    turbocharger system manufactured by Turbonetics, Inc. of 20939 Brant Ave.,
    Long Beach, CA 90810, has been found not t o reduce t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of
    required motor vehicle pollution control devices and, t h e r e f o r e , i s
    exempt from t h e prohibitions of Section 27156 of t h e Vehicle Code f o r 1979
    and older vehicles equipped with a Chrysler 360-3 heavy-duty engine.
    This Executive Order i s valid provided t h a t i n s t a l l a t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n s
-   f o r t h i s device will not recommend tuning the vehicle t o s p e c i f i c a t i o n s
    d i f f e r e n t from those submitted by the device manufacturer.

    Changes made t o the design o r operating conditions of t h e device, as
    exempted by t h e Air Resources Board, t h a t adversely a f f e c t t h e per-
    formance of a v e h i c l e ' s pollution control system s h a l l i n v a l i d a t e
    t h i s Executive Order.
    Marketing of t h i s device using an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o t h e r than t h a t shown
    i n this Executive Order or marketing of t h i s device f o r an a p p l i c a t i o n
    other than those l i s t e d i n this Executive Order s h a l l be prohibited unless
    p r i o r approval i s obtained from t h e Air Resources Board. Exemption of
    a k i t shall not be construed a s an exemption t o s e l l , o f f e r f o r s a l e
    o r advertise any component of a k i t as an individual device.
    This Executive Order does not c o n s t i t u t e any opinion as t o the e f f e c t
    t h a t the use of t h i s device may have on any warranty e i t h e r expressed o r
    implied by the vehicle manufacturer.
    THIS EXECUTIVE ORDER DOES NOT CONSTITUTE A CERTIFICATION, ACCREOITATION,
    APPROVAL, OR ANY OTHER TYPE OF ENDORSEMENT BY THE AIR RESOURCES BOARD OF
    ANY CLAIMS OF THE APPLICANT CONCERNING ANTI-POLLUTION BENEFITS OR ANY
    ALLEGED BENEFITS OF THE "TURBOFLO 360'.
    No claim of any k i n d , such as "Approved by Air Resources Board" may be made
    w i t h respect t o the action taken herein i n any a d v e r t i s i n g- o r o t h e r oral
    o r written communication.


TURBONETICS, INC. "TURBOFLO 360"                             EXECUTIVE ORDER D-99
                                                                  (Page 2 of 2 )


 Section 17500 of t h e Business and Professions Code makes untrue o r mis-
 leading a d v e r t i s i n g unlawful, and Section 17534 makes violation punishable
.as a misdemeanor.
Section 43644 of t h e Health and Safety Code provides as follows:

      "43644. ( a ) No person s h a l l i n s t a l l , s e l l , o f f e r f o r s a l e , o r
      a d v e r t i s e , o r , except i n an application t o t h e s t a t e board f o r
      c e r t i f i c a t i o n of a device, represent, any device as a motor vehicle
      pollution control device f o r use on any used motor vehicle unless
      t h a t device has been c e r t i f i e d by t h e s t a t e board. No person s h a l l
      s e l l , o f f e r f o r s a l e , a d v e r t i s e , o r represent any motor vehicle
      pollution control device a s a c e r t i f i e d device which, i n f a c t , i s
      not a c e r t i f i e d device. Any v i o l a t i o n of t h i s subdivision i s a
      misdemeanor."

Any apparent v i o l a t i o n of t h e conditions of t h i s Executive Order will be
submitted t o t h e Attorney General of California f o r such action as he
deems advisable.

Executed a t E l Monte, C a l i f o r n i a , t h i s   2-7i4-   day of February, 1980.


                                                &. 9D4&/&
                                                K. D. Drachand, Chief
                                                                           9~WJ
                                                Mobile Source Control Division


                               State of California
                               AIR RESOURCES BOARD
                                   Staff Report
                                 December 19, 1979

                      Evaluation of the Turbonetics, Inc.
                      "Turboflo 360" Turbocharger System
                  i n Accordance with Section 2222, T i t l e 13
                     of the California Administrative Code

I.    Introduction

      Turbonetics, Inc., of 20939 Brant Avenue, Long Beach, CA                    90810,
      has applied f o r an exemption from t h e prohibitions of Section
      27156 of the Vehicle Code f o r i t s "Turboflo 360" turbocharger
      system.    The system i s intended f o r use on heavy-duty vehicles
      equipped with Chrysler 360 CID engines.

      The system was t e s t e d a t the Air Resources Board's Haagen-Smit
      Laboratory on a vehicle supplied by the applicant.               Judgement
      of emissions e f f e c t s were based s o l e l y on steady s t a t e raw
      exhaust gas emissions measurements.

11.   Vehicle Description and Testing
      The t e s t vehicle i s a Fleetwood heavy-duty vehicle w i t h a u t i l i t y
      box body b u i l t on a Dodge model F40 chassis rated a t 11,500 l b s
      gross vehicle weight.       The vehicle i s equipped w i t h a Chrysler
      360-3 heavy duty engine, 4.56 rear axle, and automatic transmission.
      Emission controls a r e EM, EGR, PCV and a i r injection.


     Vehicle t e s t weight was increased t o 10,800 lbs by loading b a l l a s t
     i n t o the u t i l i t y box.   Both the baseline and device (turbocharger)

     t e s t s were conducted with the vehicle s e t t o OEM specifications.
     Road load horsepower (IXRL) was determined t o be 32 hp a t 50 mph
     (11 i n Hg, 2900 rpm) by road t e s t .          The t e s t was conducted w i t h the
     choke, heated a i r intake, and vacuum t h r o t t l e positioner disconnected.
     These items are deemed t o have no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on a h o t - s t a r t
     steady s t a t e t e s t .   The hoses carrying r a d i a t o r water t o the manifold
     adapter water jacket were a l s o disconnected.                Production turbochargers
     will have a valve t h a t controls the flow of heated water t o the
     jacket.      The ambient temperature during t e s t i n g was considered high
     enough t h a t no adapter heating f o r evaporation of fuel was required.

     Testing consisted of a s e r i e s of h o t - s t a r t steady s t a t e runs on
     a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer.               Emissions data were collected
     a t 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mph a t multiples of one, two and t h r e e
     times road load horsepower.            Two times road load (EXRL) was 64 hp a t
     50 mph.      3XRL was adjusted t o 92 hp a t 50 mph r a t h e r than 96 hp because
     the baseline vehicle was a t WOT a t 92 h p , 50 mph.

     Rear dual t i r e s were i n f l a t e d t o t h e i r maximum rated pressure of
     70 psi.      Regular grade tank fuel was used on the baseline t e s t ,
     premium grade tank fuel was used on the device t e s t .

     Results of emission measurements a r e given i n Table 1 .                  Note t h a t
II
     a s e t of turbocharger emission measurements were taken a t 58 mph,
l
1    lXRL and t h a t 60 mph, 3XRL measurements were deleted i n the
     turbocharged t e s t f o r lack of baseline comparison data.

                                             2.


                            Table 1   -   Raw Exhaust Emissions Measurements

Speed (mph)            HC ( P P ~ )             co    (%)                 NOx ( P P ~ )    M a n i f o l d Vacuum ( i n Hg)
                  base1 ine device         base1ine     device   b a s e l i n e devi ce   base1 ine device

idle
20, lXRL
30,   "
40,   "
50, "
58,   "
60,   "




 * l i m i t o f instrument range
**psig


111. System Description

    The Turboflo 360 major components consist of a d i s t r i b u t o r diaphragm,
    manifold adapter, AiResearch turbocharger, wastegate, and modified
    exhaust system.       Miscellaneous i n s t a l l a t i o n hardware i s included, as
    well as instruction t o make minor modifications t o stock vehicle
     components.

     The system i s designed t o increase the mass of air-fuel mixture in
     the cylinders over t h a t inducted by a naturally aspirated engine.

     The system operates by drawing a i r through a remote a i r cleaner and
     large diameter tube t o a carburetor i n l e t adapter.         The a i r then
     passes through the carburetor t o a manifold adapter which routes
     the air-fuel mixture t o the turbocharger compressor housing.               A small
     portion of the mixture i s recirculated through two small openings in
     the manifold adapter floor during moderate t o high flowrates.                The
     purpose of the openings i s t o allow a part of the air-fuel mixture
     t o bypass the compressor and enter the mainfold d i r e c t l y a t i d l e and
     off-idle t o prevent fuel puddling on the adapter f l o o r and t o promote
     b e t t e r cold s t a r t driveability.

     The exhaust gas from both exhaust manifolds i s routed t o the turbine
     i n l e t and then t o the exhaust pipe and muffler.        A wastegate i s
     located between the l e f t exhaust manifold and the turbine housing
     t o allow exhaust gas t o bypass the turbine a t a preset pressure f o r
     control of maximum pressure in the intake manifold.


Specific modifications of the original equipment (OE) engine t o
adapt i t t o the "Turboflo 360" are as follows:

A.   Air Induction S.ystem
     The a i r cleaner housing i s moved from the carburetor t o a
     remote location near the f r o n t of the vehicle.             A large
     diameter f l e x i b l e hose i s used t o duct a i r t o t h e carburetor.
     The PCV l i n e and heated a i r intake system will remain connected.
     The purpose of the modification i s t o obtain lower temperature
     i n l e t a i r , and t o allow space f o r the turbocharger i n s t a l l a t i o n
     without modifying the engine cover.

B.   Fuel System
     1.    Premium grade fuel i s recommended f o r the turbocharged
           engine while the n a t u r a l l y aspirated engine i s designed
           t o operate on regular grade leaded fuel.               This recommendation
           i s made t o prevent detonation during h o t weather o r heavy
           load operating conditions.

     2.    The OE Carter fuel pump i s replaced by a l a r g e r capacity
           pump (80 gpm) t o prevent loss of fuel pressure a t maximum
           demand.

     3.    The OE Carter Thermo-Quad carburetor i s modified by
           replacing the metering rods w i t h #1996 rods having smaller
           diameter midrange and power steps t o increase fuel flow.


     4.   The carburetor bowl vent tube i s shortened by 3/4" t o
          allow clearance between the top of the vent tube and the
          a i r i n l e t adapter.


C.   Ignition System
     1.   A dual diaphragm providing both normal advance and retard
          under boost replaces the OE vacuum advance diaphragm.
          Ignition retard under boost i s used t o prevent detonation.

     2.   The signal t o the advance/retard diaphragm i s modified
          from d i r e c t ported vacuum t o a ported vacuum/manifold
          vacuum combination.            This i s accomplished by teeing a
          manifold vacuum source i n t o the ported vacuum l i n e , and
          placing a calibrated o r i f i c e i n the ported vacuum l i n e
          and a check valve i n a manifold vacuum l i n e .                This
          configuration provides a normal ported signal t o the
          diaphragm a t i d l e and o f f - i d l e which gradually gives way
          t o the manifold vacuum signal as manifold vacuum drops and
          f i n a l l y goes t o a positive pressure acting as a retard signal.

D.   Exhaust System
     1.   The OE exhaust manifolds a r e retained, b u t the exhaust
          tubing i s replaced t o route exhaust gases through the
          turbine housing.           The exhaust from the l e f t ( d r i v e r ' s s i d e )
          cylinder bank i s carried under the engine by a crossover
          pipe where i t joins exhaust gas from the r i g h t bank before
          entering the turbocharger on the r i g h t s i d e of the engine.


             2.      Exhaust gas from t h e t u r b i n e runs through a s i n g l e p i p e t o

                     a s e t o f low r e s t r i c t i o n dual m u f f l e r s s u p p l i e d i n t h e

                     kit.     The purpose o f t h e dual m u f f l e r s i s t o reduce

                     exhaust back pressure.


             3.      A wastegate i s l o c a t e d on t h e crossover p i p e t o cause

                     exhaust gas t o bypass t h e t u r b i n e .            It a c t s as a boost

                     c o n t r o l t o prevent engine damage when t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l

                     pressure across t h e compressor reaches 5 p s i o r more.

                     Production wastegates w i l l be nonadjustable.


IV.   Discussion

      Turboneti cs uses OE tune-up s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , b u t a1t e r s t h e f u e l

      metering c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , vacuum advance curve, and some vacuum

      s i g n a l s t o compensate f o r t h e turbocharger system i n s t a l l a t i o n .


      The turbocharger causes a delay i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f c a r b u r e t o r power

      enrichment c i r c u i t s because vacuum a t t h e c a r b u r e t o r base i s no l o n g e r

      t h e same as m a n i f o l d vacuum f o r most o p e r a t i n g modes.             Turbonetics

      e l e c t e d t o r e p l a c e t h e primary step-up metering rods w i t h rods t h a t

      a l l o w r i c h e r midrange and power operation.                 This i s more d e s i r a b l e
      than r e f e r e n c i n g t h e enrichment c i r c u i t t o i n t a k e manifold pressure

      s i n c e i t increases t h e maximum primary f u e l d e l i v e r y c a p a c i t y and

      compensates f o r t h e delay i n secondary bore f u e l metering.                           The delay
      i n secondary f u e l metering i s a r e s u l t o f t h e t h r o t t l e p o s i t i o n on

      t h e turbocharged v e h i c l e a t a given speed and l o a d being l e s s than

      o r equal t o t h e p o s i t i o n on a n a t u r a l l y a s p i r a t e d v e h i c l e where t h e

      secondary i s b a s i c a l l y mechanical ( a i r valve modulated).


Points a t which Turboflo 360 device t e s t levels exceed the base-
l i n e are primarily i n the range of speeds where t r a n s i t i o n t o power
enrichment occurs.        For example, t h e device CO a t IXRL, 60 mph i s
1.89% compared t o 0.20% f o r the baseline.            The CO increase is due t o
s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r entry i n t o the power enrichment mode.   Readings
taken a t 58 mph, lXRL a r e nearly i d e n t i c a l t o baseline r e s u l t s a t
60 moh.

The same s i t u a t i o n i s apparent a t 50 mph, 2XRL where device CO
i s 0.68% versus 0.25% baseline.          The higher CO and HC, and lower
NOx t h a n baseline indicate s l i g h t l y richer turbocharger system
operation.     A t 60 mph, ZXRL, t h e baseline is f u l l y i n t o power
enrichment denoted by extreme CO values and high HC, and t h e
turbocharged version i s not y e t as r i c h , accounting f o r the low
HC and CO, and higher NOx value of 576 ppm versus 222 ppm.                   This i s
demonstrated again a t 50 mph, 3XRL.

The common f a c t o r among the preceding points is t h a t they a l l occur
during t r a n s i t i o n periods where a one o r two mph v a r i a t i o n i n road
speed makes large differences i n emissions performance.                 Taking
t h i s i n t o account, the Turboflo 360 system emissions performance i s
s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the baseline vehicle, w i t h the exception of two
NOx measurements a t 30 and 40 mph, 3XRL, and the 20, 30 and 40 mph HC
measurements a t 3XRL.       The 40 mph, 3XRL, NOx measurement i s close
enough t o the baseline value t o be considered w i t h i n the bounds of
t e s t variability.    A possible explanation f o r the other points i s
connected w i t h vapor lock problems t h a t appeared during the t e s t .


The t e s t sequence was lXRL 60, i d l e , 50, 40 30, 20; 2XRL 60, i d l e

50, 40, 30, 20; 3XRL 50, i d l e , 40, 30, 20.                         This sequence was

s e l e c t e d t o a l l o w the d r i v e a x l e t i r e s t o cool between h i g h speed

runs.      Fuel vapor l o c k occurred a t each i d l e on the turbocharged

v e h i c l e and became p r o g r e s s i v e l y worse w i t h time.            The most probable

cause o f the vapor l o c k i s t h e h i g h h e a t soak-back from t h e engine

and turbocharger a f t e r a hard run.                    This may have caused t h e h i g h

"Turboflo 360" HC value a t 20, 30 and 40 mph, 3XRL and t h e s i n g l e

high NOx value a t 30 mph, i f i n t e r m i t t e n t vapor l o c k caused f u e l - a i r

maldis t r i b u t i o n .


There were no vapor l o c k problems d u r i n g b a s e l i n e t e s t i n g ; however,

such problems on t h e turbocharged v e h i c l e may e a s i l y be solved.

I n s u l a t i o n might be used on t h e f u e l pump and/or on t h e engine, exhaust

system, and turbocharger p a r t s , o r a f u e l r e t u r n l i n e may be i n s t a l l e d

on the f u e l pump t o r e c i r c u l a t e f u e l .       A t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y i s the
i n s t a l l a t i o n o f an e l e c t r i c f u e l pump a t t h e r e a r o f t h e v e h i c l e .

The turbocharger manufacturer has been made aware o f t h e problem and

i s anxious t o remedy vapor l o c k i n g t o a v o i d customer complaints.

The system w i l l be m o d i f i e d as necessary i f vapor l o c k occurs on a

500 m i l e road t e s t .       I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t increased a i r f l o w and

b e t t e r c i r c u l a t i o n under a c t u a l road c o n d i t i o n s w i l l i n i t s e l f

prevent vapor l o c k .


Turbonetics has submitted a warranty statement t h a t serves t o p r o t e c t

emissions warranted p a r t s i n t h e event t h a t damage t o a p a r t i s

caused by the T u r b o f l o 360 system.                 I n a d d i t i o n , Turbonetics warrants

i t s system a g a i n s t manufacturing and workmanship defects f o r twelve

months o r 12,000 m i l e s from t h e purchase date.


V.   Conclusion and Recommendation
     Comparison of the raw exhaust emissions data demonstrates that emissions
     performance of the "Turboflo 360" system is essentially comparable to
     baseline performance. Vapor lock problems are considered to be minor.
     The staff recommends that Turbonetics be granted an exemption from
     VC 27156 for its "Turboflo 360" turbocharger system on the grounds
     that the system will have no significant emissions impact when
     installed in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications.



Document Created: 2007-06-04 13:53:52
Document Modified: 2007-06-04 13:53:52

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